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The transition from intrauterine life to extrauterine independent existence is a major event: physiologically for the baby, emotionally for the family, and medically for the health care team. The events before, during and after delivery can have profound and lifelong effects on the baby, and, therefore, physicians, whether as primary care providers or as specialists, must have an appreciation for the physiologic changes a newborn experiences. The newborn has unique needs and vulnerabilities which are distinct from those of other periods of infancy and which may extend to the end of the first month of life. Most of the information covered in this section is pertinent in the first few hours and days of life, but must be considered for infants up to one month of age.