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The evolving role of the oculoplastic surgeon in skull base surgery.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2016 May 20;
Authors: Allen RC
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Classical orbital approaches in skull base surgery have involved large incisions with extensive bone removal resulting in prolonged recovery with associated morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to explore recent advances in skull base surgery that are applicable to the orbital surgeon.
RECENT FINDINGS: Transnasal endoscopic surgery provides access to the medial 180 degrees of the orbit. Access to the lateral 180 degrees may be obtained using transmaxillary and transcranial techniques. Transorbital approaches and multiport techniques further expand the reach of the skull base surgeon. These minimally invasive techniques are supplanting the classical pterional, frontotemporal, frontotemporal orbitozygomatic, frontal, and subfrontal approaches.
SUMMARY: The role of the orbital surgeon in skull base surgery is changing. Transnasal and transcranial approaches to orbital disorders using minimally invasive techniques are becoming more common. In addition, transorbital access to the skull base, paranasal sinuses, and anterior and middle cranial fossa is offering new opportunities for the orbital surgeon.
PMID: 27213927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Orbital sarcomas in retinoblastoma patients: recommendations for screening and treatment guidelines.
Authors: Baker MS, McConnell LK, Kleinberg TT, Shriver EM, Bilyk JR, Allen RC
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retinoblastoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy in children. Although currently retinoblastoma has an excellent survival rate in developed countries, hereditary retinoblastoma survivors as well as those with a history of radiation therapy as children are at an increased risk for second primary tumors (SPTs), and specifically, for orbital sarcomas. Despite the known increased risk for SPTs in retinoblastoma survivors and the associated morbidity and mortality, no screening or treatment guidelines exist.
RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding of retinoblastoma tumorigenesis and genomic expression has expanded significantly, and treatment has evolved with a shift away from radiotherapy. Until the last two decades, however, radiation was the therapy of choice for patients with bilateral disease. Because both hereditary retinoblastoma and radiation are independent risk factors for the development of SPTs such as sarcomas and these SPTs are often fatal, appropriate surveillance for retinoblastoma survivors is crucial.
SUMMARY: As a result of the excellent survival rates for retinoblastoma patients, it is important to: recognize the risk of sarcoma, particularly in patients with hereditary retinoblastoma and/or prior radiation therapy; establish a screening protocol, such as the one proposed, to maximize early detection; and discuss and develop treatment guidelines for high-risk patients. Future directions of research for these patients will involve the development of molecularly targeted agents and the use of proton radiotherapy.
PMID: 27213925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Cryopreserved Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Maintain Potency in a Retinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Model: Toward an off-the-shelf Therapy.
Sci Rep. 2016;6:26463
Authors: Gramlich OW, Burand AJ, Brown AJ, Deutsch RJ, Kuehn MH, Ankrum JA
The ability to use mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) directly out of cryostorage would significantly reduce the logistics of MSC therapy by allowing on-site cryostorage of therapeutic doses of MSC at hospitals and clinics. Such a paradigm would be especially advantageous for the treatment of acute conditions such as stroke and myocardial infarction, which are likely to require treatment within hours after ischemic onset. Recently, several reports have emerged that suggest MSC viability and potency are damaged by cryopreservation. Herein we examine the effect of cryopreservation on human MSC viability, immunomodulatory potency, growth factor secretion, and performance in an ischemia/reperfusion injury model. Using modifications of established cryopreservation methods we developed MSC that retain >95% viability upon thawing, remain responsive to inflammatory signals, and are able to suppress activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Most importantly, when injected into the eyes of mice 3 hours after the onset of ischemia and 2 hours after the onset of reperfusion, cryopreserved performed as well as fresh MSC to rescue retinal ganglion cells. Thus, our data suggests when viability is maintained throughout the cryopreservation process, MSC retain their therapeutic potency in both in vitro potency assays and an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion model.
PMID: 27212469 [PubMed - in process]
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