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Ethanol induces cell cycle arrest and triggers apoptosis via Sp1-dependent p75NTR expression in human neuroblastoma cells.
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2013 Oct;29(5):365-80
Authors: Do H, Park HJ, Sohn EH, Kim BO, Um SH, Kwak JH, Moon EY, Rhee DK, Pyo S
Ethanol exposure has deleterious effects on the central nervous system. Although several mechanisms for ethanol-induced damage have been suggested, the precise mechanism underlying ethanol-induced neuronal cell death remains unclear. Recent studies indicate that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) has a critical role in the regulation of neuronal survival. This study was designed to examine the role of p75NTR in ethanol-induced apoptotic signaling in neuroblastoma cells. Ethanol caused highly increased level of p75NTR expression. The use of small interfering RNA to inhibit p75NTR expression markedly attenuated ethanol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. DNA binding activity of Sp1 was increased by ethanol, whereas inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin, a Sp1 inhibitor, or short hairpin RNA suppressed ethanol-induced p75NTR expression. In addition, inhibitors of casein kinase 2 (CK2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) augmented ethanol-induced p75NTR expression. Our results also demonstrate that inhibition of ERK and CK2 caused a further increase in the activation of the p75NTR proximal promoter induced by ethanol. This increased activation was partially suppressed by the deletion of the Sp1 binding sites. These results suggest that Sp1-mediated p75NTR expression is regulated at least in part by ERK and CK2 pathways. The present study also showed that treatment with ethanol resulted in significant increases in the expression of p21, but not the levels of p53 and p53 target genes such as Bax, Puma, and Bcl-2. Furthermore, the inhibition of p75NTR expression or Sp1 activity suppressed ethanol-induced p21 expression, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. These data suggest that ethanol increases p75NTR expression, and CK2 and ERK signaling inversely regulate Sp1-mediated p75NTR expression in ethanol-treated neuroblastoma cells. Thus, our study provides more insight into the mechanisms underlying ethanol actions.
PMID: 24026251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]