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Generating iPSC-Derived Choroidal Endothelial Cells to Study Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Dec;56(13):8258-67
Authors: Songstad AE, Wiley LA, Duong K, Kaalberg E, Flamme-Wiese MJ, Cranston CM, Riker MJ, Levasseur D, Stone EM, Mullins RF, Tucker BA
PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of incurable blindness in the western world, is characterized by the dysfunction and eventual death of choroidal endothelial (CECs), RPE, and photoreceptor cells. Stem cell-based treatment strategies designed to replace photoreceptor and RPE cells currently are a major scientific focus. However, the success of these approaches likely also will require replacement of the underlying, supportive choroidal vasculature. The purpose of this study was to generate stem cell-derived CECs to develop efficient differentiation and transplantation protocols.
METHODS: Dermal fibroblasts from the Tie2-GFP mouse were isolated and reprogrammed into two independent induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines via viral transduction of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Tie2-GFP iPSCs were differentiated into CECs using a coculture method with either the RF6A CEC line or primary mouse CECs. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CECs were characterized via RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry for EC- and CEC-specific markers.
RESULTS: Induced pluripotent stem cells generated from mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the endothelial Tie2 promoter display classic pluripotency markers and stem cell morphology. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CECs express carbonic anhydrase IV, eNOS, FOXA2, PLVAP, CD31, CD34, ICAM-1, Tie2, TTR, VE-cadherin, and vWF.
CONCLUSIONS: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CECs will be a valuable tool for modeling of choriocapillaris-specific insults in AMD and for use in future choroidal endothelial cell replacement approaches.
PMID: 26720480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ketamine/Xylazine-Induced Corneal Damage in Mice.
PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132804
Authors: Koehn D, Meyer KJ, Syed NA, Anderson MG
PURPOSE: We have observed that the commonly used ketamine/xylazine anesthesia mix can induce a focally severe and permanent corneal opacity. The purpose of this study was to establish the clinical and histological features of this deleterious side effect, its sensitivity with respect to age and anesthesia protocol, and approaches for avoiding it.
METHODS: Young C57BL/6J, C57BLKS/J, and SJL/J mice were treated with permutations of anesthesia protocols and compared using slit-lamp exams, optical coherence tomography, histologic analyses, and telemetric measurements of body temperature.
RESULTS: Ketamine/xylazine induces corneal damage in mice with a variable frequency. Among 12 experimental cohorts, corneal damage associated with ketamine/xylazine was observed in 9 of them. Despite various treatments to avoid corneal dehydration during anesthesia, the frequency of corneas experiencing damage among responding cohorts was 42% (26% inclusive of all cohorts), which is significantly greater than the natural prevalence (5%). The damage was consistent with band keratopathy. It appeared as a white or gray horizontal band located proximal to the pupil and was positive for subepithelial calcium deposition with von Kossa stain.
CONCLUSIONS: The sum of our clinical and histological observations is consistent with ketamine/xylazine-induced band keratopathy in mice. This finding is relevant for mouse studies involving the eye and/or vision-dependent behavioral assays, which would both be prone to artifact without appreciation of the damage caused by ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. Use of yohimbine is suggested as a practical means of avoiding this complication.
PMID: 26222692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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