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This information is intended primarily for ophthalmologists.
It is a summary of material published in peer reviewed ophthalmic
journals. For more detailed information, please refer to the
papers in the bibliography and the various cited articles in
Dr. Hayreh does not give an opinion without personally examining
a patient; he feels that to do so is unethical and also potentially
Information initially Posted August 1, 2002, revised April 3, 2003, reviewed August 1, 2009 and June 1, 2011text and images © Sohan Singh Hayreh.Reproduction
of any part of this material is not permitted without express permission
from Dr. Hayreh.