Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science

Richard K. Shields, PT, PhD, FAPTA

Portrait

Chair & DEO, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences
Professor of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science

Contact Information

Primary Office: 1-254 MEB
Iowa City, IA 52242
Primary Office Phone: 319-335-9803

Email: richard-shields@uiowa.edu
Web: Human Movement Control/Performance Laboratory

Education

BS, Biology, Catawba College, Salisbury, NC
PT, Physical Therapy Certificate, Mayo Clinic of Health Related Sciences, Rochester, MN
MA, Exercise Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
PhD, Exercise Physiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biosciences Graduate Program

Research Summary

Central Research Theme: Prescribed Activity (Exercise) is medicine.

1) Neuro-musculoskeletal adaptation to various “activity based” interventions in humans with spinal cord injury: muscle molecular and physiological adaptations, segmental and central reflex adaptations, and trabecular bone image adaptations.

2) Neuromuscular control of movement in humans after acute and chronic perturbations from reduced activity (Age, ACL injury, muscle fatigue, CNS injury).

3) Acute responses to passive heat stress on extra-cellular proteins (HSP70, hormones), motor cortical excitability, and motor learning. Funding: NIH, Private Foundations, Industry.

All Publications

McHenry C, Wu J, Shields R.  Potential regenerative rehabilitation technology: implications of mechanical stimuli to tissue health..  BMC Res Notes.  2014 June 3. 7:334.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Pizzimenti M, Dudley-Javoroski S, Schwinn D.  Fostering interprofessional teamwork in an academic medical center: Near-peer education for students during gross medical anatomy..  Anat Sci Educ..  2014 May 28. 
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Amelon R, Liu Y, Saha P, Shields R.  High bone density masks architectural deficiencies in an individual with spinal cord injury..  J Spinal Cord.  2014 May. 37(3):349-354.
[PubMed]

Petrie M, Suneja M, Faidley E, Shields R.  Low force contractions induce fatigue consistent with muscle mRNA expression in people with spinal cord injury..  Physiol Rep.  2014 February 25. 2(2).
[PubMed]

Ambrosio F, Boninger M, Brubaker C, Delitto A, Wagner W, Shields R, Wolf S, Rando T.  Guest Editorial: emergent themes from second annual symposium on regenerative rehabilitation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania..  J Rehabil Res Dev.  2013 June. 50(3):vii-xiv.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S.  Fatigue modulates synchronous but not asynchronous soleus activation during stimulation of paralyzed muscle..  Clin Neurophysiol.  2013 May 11. S1388-2457(13):00278-2.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Active-resisted stance modulates regional bone mineral density in humans with spinal cord injury.  J Spinal Cord Med..  2013 May. 36(3):191-199.
[PubMed]

Tseng S, Shields R.  Limb compressive load does not inhibit post activation depression of soleus H-reflex in indiviudals with chronic spinal cord injury.  Clin Neurophysiol.  2013 May. 124(5):982-990.
[PubMed]

Littmann A, McHenry C, Shields R.  Variability of motor cortical excitability using a novel mapping procedure.  J Neurosci Methods.  2013 April 15. 214(2):137-143.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury.  J Rehabil Res Dev.  2012 December. 49(9):1365-1376.
[PubMed]

Iguchi M, Littmann A, Chang S, Webster L, Knipper J, Shields R.  Heat stress and cardiovascular, hormonal, and heat shock proteins in humans..  J Athletic Train.  2012 March. 47(2):184-90.
[PubMed]

Tseng S, Shields R.  Limb segment load inhibits post activation depression of soleus H-reflex in humans..  Clin Neurophysiol.  2012 March. 124(5):982-90.
[PubMed]

Chang S, Tseng S, McHenry C, Littmann A, Suneja M, Shields R.  Limb segment vibration modulates spinal reflex excitability and muscle mRNA expression after spinal cord injury.  Clin Neurophysiol.  2012 March. 123(3):558-568.
[PubMed]

Littmann A, Iguchi M, Madhavan S, Kolarik J, Shields R.  Dynamic position sense impairment is independent of perceived knee function in woman with ACL reconstruction.  J Sport Rehabil.  2012 February. 21(1):44-53.
[PubMed]

McHenry C, Shields R.  A biomechanical analysis of exercise in standing, supine, and seated positions: implications for individuals with spinal cord injury.  J Spinal Cord Med.  2012. 35(3):140-147.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Saha P, Liang G, Li C, Gao Z, Shields R.  High dose compressive loads attenuate bone mineral loss in humans with spinal cord injury.  Osteoporos Int.  2011 December 21. 
[PubMed]

Goldstein M, Scalzitti D, Bohmert J, Brennan G, Craik R, Delitto A, Field-Fote E, Magistro C, Powers C, Shields R.  Vitalizing Practice through Research and Research through Practice: The Outcomes of a Conference to Enhance the Delivery of Care.  Phys Ther.  2011 August. 91(8):1275-1284.
[PubMed]

Iguchi M, Shields R.  Cortical and segmental excitability during fatiguing contractions of the soleus muscle in humans.  Clin Neurophysiol.  2011 July 28. 
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S, Oza P.  Low-frequency H-reflex depression in trained human soleus after spinal cord injury.  Neurosci Lett.  2011 July 20. 499(2):88-92.
[PubMed]

Iguchi M, Shields R.  Prior heat stress effects fatigue recovery of the elbow flexor muscles..  Muscle Nerve.  2011 July. 44(1):115-125.
[PubMed]

Chang S, Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Gravitational force modulates muscle activity during mechanical oscillation of the tibia in humans..  J Electromyogr Kinesiol.  2011 June 25. 21(5):847-853.
[PubMed]

Kunkel S, Suneja M, Ebert S, Bongers K, Fox D, Malmberg S, Alipour F, Shields R, Adams C.  mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy identify a natural compound that increases muscle mass.  Cell Metab.  2011 June 8. 13(6):627-638.
[PubMed]

Chang Y, Shields R.  Doublet Electrical Stimulation Enhances Torque Production in People with Spinal Cord Injury.  Neurorehabil Neural Repair.  2011 February 8. 25(5):423-432.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Littmann A, Chang S, McHenry C, Shields R.  Enhancing muscle force and femur compressive loads via feedback-controlled stimulation of paralyzed quadriceps in humans.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil.  2011 February. 92(2):242-249.
[PubMed]

Goldstein M, Scalzitti D, Craik R, Dunn D, Irion J, Irrgang J, Kolobe T, McDonough C, Shields R.  The revised research agenda for physical therapy.  Phys Ther.  2011 February. 91(2):165-174.
[PubMed]

Adams C, Suneja M, Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Altered mRNA expression after long-term soleus electrical stimulation training in humans with paralysis.  Muscle Nerve.  2011 January. 43(1):65-75.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, McMullen T, Borgwardt M, Peranich L, Shields R.  Reliability and responsiveness of musculoskeletal ultrasound in subjects with and without spinal cord injury.  Ultrasound Med Biol.  2010 October. 36(10):1594-1607.
[PubMed]

Madhavan S, Shields R.  Neuromuscular responses in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament repair.  Clin Neurophysiol .  2010 September. 122(5):997-1004.
[PubMed]

Ballantyne B, Shields R.  Quadriceps fatigue alters human muscle performance during a novel weight bearing task.  Med Sci Sports Exerc.  2010 September. 42(9):1712-1722.
[PubMed]

Iguchi M, Shields R.  Quadriceps low-frequency fatigue and muscle pain are contraction-type-dependent.  Muscle Nerve.  2010 August. 42(2):230-238.
[PubMed]

Meszaros A, Iguchi M, Chang S, Shields R.  Repetitive eccentric muscle contractions increase torque unsteadiness in the human triceps brachii.  J Electromyogr Kinesiol.  2010 August. 20(4):619-626.
[PubMed]

Shields R.  Above board: clear bylaws support the research mission of the Foundation for Physical Therapy.  Phys Ther.  2009 October. 89(10):1010-1012.
[PubMed]

Reese D, Shivapour E, Wahls T, Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary interventions to reduce oxidatiave stress in a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patient leads to marked gains in function: A case report.  2009 August 10. 
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Longitudinal changes in femur bone mineral density after spinal cord injury: effects of slice placement and peel method.  Osteoporosis Int.  2009 August. 26(6):985-995.
[PubMed]

Madhavan S, Burkart S, Baggett G, Nelson K, Teckenburg T, Zwanzinger M, Shields R.  Influence of age on neuromuscular control during a dynamic weight-bearing task.  J Aging Phys Act.  2009 July. 17(3):327-343.
[PubMed]

Madhavan S, Shields R.  Movement accuracy changes muscle-activation strategies in female subjects during a novel single-leg weight-bearing task.  PM R.  2009 April. 1(4):319-328.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Asymmetric bone adaptations to soleus mechanical loading after spinal cord injury.  J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact.  2008 July. 8(3):277-38.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Littmann A, Iguchi M, Shields R.  Doublet stimulation protocol to minimize musculoskeletal stress during paralyzed quadriceps muscle testing.  J Appl Phys.  2008 June. 104(6):1574-1582.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Dose estimation and surveillance of mechanical loading interventions for bone loss after spinal cord injury.  Phys Ther .  2008. 88(3):387-396.
[PubMed]

Iguchi M, Baldwin K, Boeyink C, Engle C, Kehoe M, Ganju A, Messaros A, Shields R.  Low frequency fatigue in human quadriceps is fatigue dependent and not task dependent.  J Electromyogr Kinesiol .  2008. 18(2):308-316.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Muscle and bone plasticity after spinal cord injury: Review of adaptations to disuse and to electrical muscle stimulation.  J Rehabil Res Dev .  2008. 45(2):283-296.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S.  Musculoskeletal adaptations in chronic spinal cord injury: Effects of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training.  Neurorehabil Neural Repair .  2007 March. 21(2):169-179.
[PubMed]

Frey-Law L, Shields R.  Mathematical models of human paralyzed muscle after long-term training.  J Biomech .  2007. 40(12):2587-2595.
[PubMed]

Shields R.  Neuroimaging in rehabilitation: a resource for clinicians.  Phys Ther.  2007. 87(6):639-640.
[PubMed]

Shields R.  Rehabilitation after Spinal Cord Injury.  2007. 

Madhavan S, Shields R.  Weight bearing exercise accuracy influences muscle activation strategy of the knee.  J Neur Phys Ther .  2007. 31(1):15-19.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S, Cole K.  Feedback-Controlled Stimulation Enhances Human Paralyzed Muscle Performance.  J Appl Physiol.  2006 November. 101(5):1312-1319.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S, Boaldin K, Corey T, Fog D, Ruen J.  Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT): Measurement sensitivity in individuals with and without spinal cord injury.  Arch Phys Med Rehab.  2006 October. 87(10):1376-1381.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S, Littmann A.  Post fatigue potentiation of the paralyzed soleus muscle: evidence for adaptation with long-term electrical stimulation training.  J Appl Physiol .  2006 August. 101(2):556-565.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Chang Y, Dudley-Javoroski S, Lin C.  Predictive model of muscle fatigue after SCI in humans.  Muscle Nerve .  2006 July. 34(1):84-91.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S.  Musculoskeletal plasticity after acute spinal cord injury: effects of long-term neuromuscular electrical stimulation training.  J Neurophysiol .  2006 April. 95(4):2380-2390.
[PubMed]

Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields R.  Assessment of physical function and secondary complications after complete spinal cord injury.  Disabil Rehabil .  2006. 28(2):103-110.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S, Frey-Law L.  Electrically–induced muscle contractions influence bone density decline after spinal cord injury.  Spine .  2006. 31(5):548-553.
[PubMed]

Frey-Law L, Shields R.  Predicting human chronically paralyzed muscle force: a comparison of three mathematical models.  J Appl Physiol .  2006. 100(3):1027-1036.
[PubMed]

Shields R.  Rehabilitation medicine summit: building research capacity – Executive Summary – Invited Commentary.  Phys Ther .  2006. 86(2):299-300.

Shields R, Schlechte J, Dudley-Jovoroski S, Zwart B, Clark S, Grant S, Mattiace V.  Bone mineral density after spinal cord injury: a reliable method for knee measurement.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil .  2005. 86(10):1969-1973.
[PubMed]

Elokda A, Shields R, Nielsen D.  Effects of a maximal graded exercise test on glutathione as a marker of acute oxidative stress.  J Cardiopulm Rehabil .  2005. 25(4):215-219.
[PubMed]

Madhavan S, Shields R.  Influence of age on dynamic position sense: evidence using a sequential movement task.  Exp Brain Res .  2005. 164(1):18-28.
[PubMed]

Frey Law L, Shields R.  Mathematical models using varying parameter strategies to represent paralyzed muscle force properties: a sensitivity analysis. .  J Neuroengineering Rehabil.  2005. 31:2-12.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S.  Monitoring standing wheelchair use after spinal cord injury: A case report.  Disabil Rehabil .  2005. 27(3):142-146.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Madhavan S, Gregg E, Leitch J, Petersen B, Salata S, Wallerich S.  Neuromuscular control of the knee during a resisted single-limb squat exercise.  Am J Sports Med .  2005. 33(10):1520-1526.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Madhaven S, Cole K, Brostad J, Demeulenaere J, Eggers C, Otten P.  Proprioceptive coordination of movement sequences in humans.  Clin Neurophysiol .  2005. 116(1):87-92.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Madhaven S, Cole K.  Sustained muscle activity minimally influences dynamic position sense of the ankle.  J Ortho Sports Phys Ther .  2005. 35(7):443-451.
[PubMed]

Schindler-Iyens S, Shields R.  Soleus H-reflex recruitment is not altered in persons with chronic spinal cord injury.  Arch Phys Med Rehab.  2004 May. 85(5):840-847.
[PubMed]

Schindler-Iyens S, Shields R.  Comparison of linear regression and probit analysis for detecting H-reflex threshold in individuals with and without spinal cord injury.  Electromyo Clin Neurophysiol .  2004. 44(3):153-163.
[PubMed]

Frey-Law L, Shields R.  Femoral loads during passive, active and active-resistive stance after spinal cord injury.  Clin Biomech .  2004. 19:313-321.
[PubMed]

Deshpande P, Shields R.  Soleus motor neuron excitability before and after standing.  Electromyo Clin Neurophysiol .  2004. 44(5):259-264.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Dudley-Javoroski S.  Musculoskeletal deterioration and hemicorporectomy after spinal cord injury: A case report.  Phys Ther .  2003. 83(3):263-275.
[PubMed]

Shields R.  Muscular, skeletal, and neural adaptations following spinal cord injury.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther .  2002 February. 32(2):65-74.
[PubMed]

Heiss D, Shields R, Yack H.  Balance loss when lifting a heavier-than-expected load: effects of lifting technique..  Arch Phys Med Rehabil .  2002. 83(1):48-59.
[PubMed]

Ludewig P, Cook T, Shields R.  Comparison of surface sensor and bone-fixed measurement of humeral motion.  J Appl Biomech .  2002. 18:163-170.

Chang Y, Shields R.  Within-train neuromuscular propagation varies with torque in paralyzed human muscle.  Muscle Nerve .  2002. 26:673-680.
[PubMed]

Heiss D, Shields R, Yack H.  Anticipatory control of vertical lifting force and momentum during the squat lift with expected and unexpected loads..  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.  2001 December. 31(12):708-723; discussion 724-729.
[PubMed]

Heiss D, Shields R, Yack H.  Anticipatory control of vertical lifting force and momentum during the squat lift with expected and unexpected loads.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther .  2001. 31(12):708-723.
[PubMed]

Schindler-Lyens S, Shields R.  Low frequency depression of H-reflexes in humans with acute and chronic spinal cord injury.  Exp Brain Res .  2000 July. 133(2):233-241.
[PubMed]

Elokda A, Nielsen D, Shields R.  Effect of functional neuromuscular stimulation on postural related orthostatic stress in individuals with acute spinal cord injury.  J Rehabil Res Dev.  2000. 37(5):535-542.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Leo K, Messaros A, Somers V, Mark A.  Effects of repetitive handgrip training on endurance, specificity, and cross education.  Phys Ther.  1999 May. 79(5):467-475.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Enloe L, Leo K.  Health-related quality of life in patients with total hip or knee replacement.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil .  1999 May. 80(5):572-579.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Ruhland J, Ross M, Saehler M, Smith K, Heffner M.  Analysis of health-related quality of life and muscle impairment in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using the medical outcome survey and the tufts quantitative neuromuscular exam.  Arch Phys Med Rehab .  1998 July. 79(7):855-862.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Chang Y, Ross M.  Neuromuscular propagation after fatiguing contractions of the paralyzed soleus muscle in humans.  Muscle Nerve .  1998 June. 21(6):776-787.
[PubMed]

Ruhland J, Shields R.  The effects of a home exercise program on impairment and health-related quality of life in persons with chronic peripheral neuropathies.  Phys Ther .  1997 October. 77(10):1026-1039.
[PubMed]

Enloe L, Shields R.  Evaluation of health related quality of life in individuals with vestibular dysfunction using disease-specific and general outcome measures.  Phys Ther.  1997 September. 77(9):890-903.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Frey Law L, Reiling B, Sass K, Wilwert J.  Effects of electrically induced fatigue on the twitch and tetanus of paralyzed soleus muscle in humans.  J Appl Physiol.  1997 May. 82(5):1499-1507.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Chang Y.  Effects of fatigue on the torque frequency curve in the human paralyzed soleus muscle.  J Electromyogr Kinesiol .  1997 March. 7(1):3-13.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Heiss D.  An electromyographic comparison of abdominal muscle synergies during curl and double straight leg lowering exercise with control of the pelvic position.  Spine .  1997. 22(16):1873-1879.
[PubMed]

Enloe L, Shields R, Leo K, Miller B, Smith K.  Total hip and knee replacement treatment programs: A report using consensus of experts.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther .  1996. 23(1):3-11.
[PubMed]

Shields R.  Fatigability, relaxation properties, and electromyographic responses of the human paralyzed soleus muscle.  J Neurophysiol .  1995 June. 73(6):2195-2206.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Enloe L, Evans R, Smith K, Steckel S.  Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of functional tests in patients with total joint replacement.  Phys Ther .  1995 March. 75(3):169-179; discussion 176-179.
[PubMed]

Shields R.  Invited Commentary: Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of functional tests in patients with total joint replacement.  Phys Ther .  1995. 75(3):178-179.

Shields R, Leo K, Dostal W, Miller B, Barr R.  An acute care physical therapy clinical practice data base for outcomes research.  Phys Ther .  1994 May. 74(5):463-470.
[PubMed]

Shields R.  Invited Commentary: Pain and stiffness reliability in clinical manual lumbar spine examination.  Phys Ther .  1994. 74:809-810.

Shields R, Cook T.  Lumbar support thickness: effect on seated buttock pressure in individuals with and without spinal cord injury.  Phys Ther .  1992 March. 72(3):218-226.
[PubMed]

Yuh W, Fisher D, Shields R, Ehrhardt J, Shellock F.  Phantom limb pain induced in an amputee by strong magnetic fields.  J Magn Reson Imaging .  1992 March. 2(2):221-223.
[PubMed]

Somers V, Leo K, Shields R, Clay M, Mark A.  Forearm endurance training attenuates the sympathetic nerve response to isometric handgrip in humans.  J Appl Physiol .  1992. 72(3):1039-1043.

Shields R, Cook T.  Effect of lumbar support and seat angle on seated buttock pressure.  Phys Ther .  1988 November. 68(11):1682-1686.
[PubMed]

Shields R, Enloe L.  The University of Iowa Functional Level of Assistance Scale. 

Date Last Modified: 06/07/2014 - 21:56:23