Pathology

Matthew D. Krasowski, MD, PhD

Portrait

Director, Clinical Laboratories
Medical Director, Clinical Chemistry and Point of Service Laboratories
Clinical Associate Professor of Pathology  - Clinical Pathology

Contact Information

Primary Office: C671 General Hospital
Iowa City, IA 52242
Primary Office Phone: 319-384-9380

Email: matthew-krasowski@uiowa.edu

Education

BA, East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago
PhD, Neurobiology, University of Chicago
MD, University of Chicago

Residency, Clinical Pathology, University of Chicago
Fellowship, Clinical Pharmacology & Pharmacogenomics, University of Chicago

Licensure and Certifications

Fellow, College of American Pathologists
Diplomat, Clinical Pathology, American Board of Pathology

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Informatics

Research Summary

Clinical: 1) Toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring, 2) Novel methods of teaching laboratory medicine to medical students and 3) Application of pharmacogenetics to clinical practice.

Informatics: Methods to predict interferences in clinical chemistry.

Basic Research: 1)Liver metabolism of drugs and endogenous compounds, 2) Bile salt biology, 3) Evolution of nuclear hormone receptors and enzymes and 4) Transcription regulators of liver and intestinal metabolism.

All Publications

Wood K, Krasowski M, McMillin G.  Drug Tests in Multiple Births Largest Study Examines Incidence of Mismatches in Meconium Test Results.  CLINICAL & FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY NEWS.  2014 September. 

Mathur G, Haugen T, Davis S, Krasowski M.  Streamlined sign-out of capillary protein electrophoresis using middleware and an open-source macro application .  J Pathol Inform .  2014 September. 

Wood K, Sinclair L, Rysgaard C, Strathmann F, McMillin G, Krasowski M.  Retrospective analysis of the diagnostic yield of newborn drug testing.  BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.  2014 July 29. 14(1):250.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Drees D, Morris C, Maakestad J, Blau J, Ekins S.  Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction .  BMC Clin Pathol.  2014 July 14. 14:33.

Wood K, Krasowski M, Strathmann F, McMillin G.  Meconium Drug Testing in Multiple Births in the USA..  J Anal Toxicol.  2014 June 13. 
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, McMillin G.  Advances in Anti-Epileptic Drug Testing.  Clin Chim Acta.  2014 June 9. 
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Ekins S.  Using cheminformatics to predict cross reactivity of "designer drugs" to their currently available immunoassays.  J Cheminform.  2014 May 10. 6.
[PubMed]

Krasowsik M, Drees D, Morris C, Kulhavy J, Bebber T, Clark I, Nelson D, Teul S, Voss D, Aman D, Fahnle J, Blau J.  Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center.  J Pathol Inform.  2014 March 28. 5.
[PubMed]

Rysgaard C, Krasowski M.  Drug Testing in the Newborn.  2014 March 15. 

Ahmed A, Tschetter P, Krasowski M, Engelman A.  Massive ethylene glycol poisoning triggers osmotic demyelination syndrome.  J Emerg Med.  2014 March. 46(3):e69-74.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  Decision Support in Medicine, LLC;  2014. 

Krasowski M.  Hypercalcemia of malignancy.  Decision Support in Medicine, LLC;  2014. 

Krasowski M.  Milk-Alkali Syndrome.  Decision Support in Medicine, LLC;  2014. 

Krasowski M.  Primary hyperparathyroidism.  Decison Support in Medicine, LLC;  2014. 

Krasowski M.  Pseudohyperparathyroidism".  Decision Support in Medicine, LLC;  2014. 

Krasowski M.  Secondary hyperparathyroidism.  Decision Support in Medicine, LLC;  2014. 

Marin S, Metcalf A, Krasowski M, Linert B, Clark C, Strathmann F, McMillin G.  Detection of Neonatal Drug Exposure Using Umbilical Cord Tissue and Liquid Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.  Ther Drug Monit.  2013 September 20. 
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  The Challenge of Detecting Prescription Opioid Abuse in Pregnancy.  Care for Kids: Early & Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, & Treatment.  2013 Autumn. 20(3):1-3.

Krasowski M.  Anti-Epileptic Drugs: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of the Newer Generation Drugs.  Clin Lab News.  2013 June. 39(6):8-10.
[Link]

Ehlers A, Morris C, Krasowski M.  A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography.  Springerplus.  2013 May 1. 2(1):203.
[PubMed]

Jackson B, Krasowski M, Sims P.  Laboratory diagnostic oversight committees and the profession of laboratory medicine.  Am J Clin Pathol.  2013 March. 139(3):273-4.
[PubMed]

Petrie M, Lynch K, Ekins S, Chang J, Goetz R, Wu A, Krasowski M.  Cross-reactivity studies and predictive modeling of "Bath Salts" and other amphetamine-type stimulants with amphetamine screening immunoassays.  Clin Toxicol (Phila)..  2013 February. 51(2):83-91.
[PubMed]

Brown J, Vite B, Weinkauf E, Wresh J, Borschke L, Krasowski M, Hesse M.  An Introduction to Ambien, Problems of Sleep and the Law.  Minnesota Police Chief.  2013. 33(3):26-28.

Genzen J, Gosselin J, Wilson T, Racila E, Krasowski M.  Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location. .  BMC Endocr Disor.  2013. 13(1):52.
[PubMed]

Madore E, Brown J, Weinkauf E, Wresh J, Singh J, Wartnik A, Krasowski M.  Epilepsy: What All Law Enforcement Officers Should Know.  Minnesota Police Chief.  2013. 33(1).

Crisp T, Krasowski M, Daugherty S.  USMLE Step 1 Pharmacology.  DeVry/Becker Educational Development Co.;  2013.

Hagey L, Krasowski M.  Microbial biotransformations of bile acids as detected by electrospray mass spectrometry.  Adv Nutr.  2013 January. 4(1):29-35.
[PubMed]

Kurt-Mangold M, Drees D, Krasowski M.  Extremely high myoglobin plasma concentrations producing hook effect in a critically ill patient.  Clin Chim Acta.  2012 September. 414C:179-181.
[PubMed]

Rysgaard C, Morris C, Drees D, Bebber T, Davis S, Kulhavy J, Krasowski M.  Positive hepatitis B surface antigen tests due to recent vaccination: a persistent problem.  BMC Clin Pathol.  2012 September. 12(1):15.
[PubMed]

Barakauskas V, Davis R, Krasowski M, McMillin G.  Unresolved discrepancies between cannabinoid test results for infant urine.  Clin Chem.  2012 September. 58(9):1364-7.
[PubMed]

King A, Pugh J, Menke N, Krasowski M, Lynch M, Pizon A.  Nonfatal tramadol overdose may cause false-positive phencyclidine on Emit-II assay.  Am J Emerg Med.  2012 August. 
[PubMed]

Fidler A, Holland P, Reschly E, Ekins S, Krasowski M.  Activation of a tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) xenobiotic receptor orthologue by both natural toxins and synthetic toxicants.  Toxicon.  2012 February. 59(2):365-72.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  Toxic Alcohols: Practical Challenges in Laboratory Diagnosis of Ingestions.  Clin Lab News.  2012 February. 38(2):8-10.

Krasowski M, Penrod L.  Clinical decision support of therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin: measured versus adjusted phenytoin plasma concentrations.  BMC Med Inform Decis Mak.  2012. 12:7.
[PubMed]

Kortagere S, Krasowski M, Ekins S.  Ligand and structure-based pregnane x receptor models.  Methods Mol Biol.  2012. 929:359-75.
[PubMed]

Ekins S, Kortagere S, Krasowski M, Williams A, Xu J, Zientek M.  Ligand-based modeling of toxicity.  Cambridge (UK): RSC Publishing.  2012. 

Krasowski M.  Pharmacogenomics aspect of warfarin therapy.  Oxford (UK): Wiley-Blackwell Publisher.  2012. 

Madore E, Brown J, Krasowski M, Bischel-Beddow K.  Seizures and Epilepsy: What All First Responders and Corrections Officers Should Know.  Happenings Newsletter Minnesota Community Corrections Association.  2012. 

Krasowski M, Wilcoxon R, Miron J.  A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps.  BMC Clin Pathol.  2012 January. 12(1):1.
[PubMed]

Kurogi K, Krasowski M, Injeti E, Liu M, Williams F, Sakakibara Y, Suiko M, Liu M.  A comparative study of the sulfation of bile acids and a bile alcohol by the Zebra danio (Danio rerio) and human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs).  J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol.  2011 November. 127(5-Mar):307-14.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Hopfinger A.  The discovery of new anesthetics by targeting GABA<sub>A</sub> receptors.  Expert Opin Drug Discov.  2011 November. 6(11):1187-201.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  Pathology consultation on vitamin D testing.  Am J Clin Pathol.  2011 October. 136(4):507-14.
[PubMed]

Ogawa S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Krasowski M, Hagey L, Hofmann A, Iida T.  Chemical synthesis of the (25R)- and (25S)-epimers of 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5α-cholestan-27-oic acid as well as their corresponding glycine and taurine conjugates.  Chem Phys Lipids.  2011 July. 164(5):368-77.
[PubMed]

Ekins S, Williams A, Krasowski M, Freundlich J.  In silico repositioning of approved drugs for rare and neglected diseases.  Drug Discov Today.  2011 April. 16(8-Jul):298-310.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Ni A, Hagey L, Ekins S.  Evolution of promiscuous nuclear hormone receptors: LXR, FXR, VDR, PXR, and CAR.  Mol Cell Endocrinol.  2011 March. 334(2-Jan):39-48.
[PubMed]

Adams Y, Krasowski M.  Pharmacogenomics.  New York: McGraw Hill Lange.  2011. 

Krasowski M, Ai N, Hagey L, Kollitz E, Kullman S, Reschly E, Ekins S.  The evolution of farnesoid X, vitamin D, and pregnane X receptors: insights from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis) and other non-mammalian species.  BMC Biochem.  2011. 12:5.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  Therapeutic durg monitoring of anti-epilepsey medications [open access].  Rijeka (Croatia): InTech Publisher.  2011. Book 1:133-158.

Hagey L, Vidal N, Hofmann A, Krasowski M.  Complex evolution of bile salts in birds.  Auk.  2010 October. 127(4):820-831.
[PubMed]

Kortagere S, Krasowski M, Reschly E, Venkatesh M, Mani S, Ekins S.  Evaluation of computational docking to identify pregnane X receptor agonists in the ToxCast<sup>TM</sup> database.  Environ Health Perspect.  2010 October. 118(10):1412-7.
[PubMed]

Hagey L, Lida T, Tamegai H, Ogawa S, Une M, Asahina K, Mushiake K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Krasowski M, Hofmann A.  Major biliary bile acids of the medaka (Oryzias latipes): 25R- and 25S-epimers of 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid.  Zoolog Sci.  2010 July. 27(7):565-73.
[PubMed]

Howarth D, Hagey L, Law S, Ai N, Krasowski M, Ekins S, Moore J, Kollitz E, Hinton D, Kullman S.  Two farnesoid X receptor alpha isoforms in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) are differentially activated in vitro.  Aquat Toxicol.  2010 July. 98(3):245-55.
[PubMed]

Lynch M, Pizon A, Siam M, Krasowski M.  Clinical effects and toxicokinetic evaluation following massive topiramate ingestion.  J Med Toxicol.  2010 June. 6(2):135-8.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of the Newer Anti-Epilepsy Medications.  Pharmaceuticals (Basel).  2010 June. 3(6):1909-1935.
[PubMed]

Smith B, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Anastasi J, Baron B, Berg A, Bock J, Campbell S, Crookston K, Fitzgerald R, Fung M, Haspel R, Howe J, Jhang J, Kamoun M, Koethe S, Krasowski M, Landry M, Marques M, Rinder H, Roberts W, Schreiber W, Spitalnik S, Tormey C, Wolf P, Wu Y.  Educating medical students in laboratory medicine: a proposed curriculum.  Am J Clin Pathol.  2010 April. 133(4):533-42.
[PubMed]

Hofmann A, Hagey L, Krasowski M.  Bile salts of vertebrates: structural variation and possible evolutionary significance.  J Lipid Res.  2010 February. 51(2):226-46.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  Clinical practice of therapeutic drug monitoring of new anticonvulsants.  Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.  2010. 

Hagey L, Møller P, Hofmann A, Krasowski M.  Diversity of bile salts in fish and amphibians: evolution of a complex biochemical pathway.  Physiol Biochem Zool.  2010. 83(2):308-21.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Blau J.  Drug interactions with St. John's wort.  Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley and Sons, Inc.  2010. 

Hagey L, Vidal N, Hofmann A, Krasowski M.  Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites.  BMC Evol Biol.  2010. 10:133.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Siam M, Ekins S.  Immunoassays for tricyclic antidepressants: unsuitable for therapeutic drug monitoring?.  Boca Raton(FL): CRC Press.  2010. 

Ekins S, Kortagere S, Iyer M, Reschly E, Lill M, Redinbo M, Krasowski M.  Challenges predicting ligand-receptor interactions of promiscuous proteins: the nuclear receptor PXR.  PLoS Comput Biol.  2009 December. 5(12):e1000594.
[PubMed]

Biswas A, Mani S, Redinbo M, Krasowski M, Li H, Ekins S.  Elucidating the 'Jekyll and Hyde' nature of PXR: the case for discovering antagonists or allosteric antagonists.  Pharm Res.  2009 August. 26(8):1807-15.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Siam M, Iyer M, Pizon A, Giannoutsos S, Ekins S.  Chemoinformatic methods for predicting interference in drug of abuse/toxicology immunoassays.  Clin Chem.  2009 June. 55(6):1203-13.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Siam M, Iyer M, Ekins S.  Molecular similarity methods for predicting cross-reactivity with therapeutic drug monitoring immunoassays.  Ther Drug Monit.  2009 June. 31(3):337-44.
[PubMed]

Ai N, Krasowski M, Welsh W, Ekins S.  Understanding nuclear receptors using computational methods.  Drug Discov Today.  2009 May. 14(10-Sep):486-94.
[PubMed]

Kortagere S, Krasowski M, Ekins S.  The importance of discerning shape in molecular pharmacology.  Trends Pharmacol Sci.  2009 March. 30(3):138-47.
[PubMed]

Pizon A, Schwartz A, Shum L, Rittenberger J, Lower D, Giannoutsos S, Virji M, Krasowski M.  Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline.  Clin Toxicol (Phila).  2009 February. 47(2):132-6.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Pizon A, Siam M, Giannoutsos S, Iyer M, Ekins S.  Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine.  BMC Emerg Med.  2009. 9:5.
[PubMed]

Zhang B, Xie W, Krasowski M.  PXR: a xenobiotic receptor of diverse function implicated in pharmacogenetics.  Pharmacogenomics.  2008 November. 9(11):1695-709.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Reschly E, Ekins S.  Intrinsic disorder in nuclear hormone receptors.  J Proteome Res.  2008 October. 7(10):4359-72.
[PubMed]

Reschly E, Ai N, Ekins S, Welsh W, Hagey L, Hofmann A, Krasowski M.  Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates.  J Lipid Res.  2008 July. 49(7):1577-87.
[PubMed]

Khandelwal A, Krasowski M, Reschly E, Sinz M, Swaan P, Ekins S.  Machine learning methods and docking for predicting human pregnane X receptor activation.  Chem Res Toxicol.  2008 July. 21(7):1457-67.
[PubMed]

Ekins S, Iyer M, Krasowski M, Kharasch E.  Molecular characterization of CYP2B6 substrates.  Curr Drug Metab.  2008 June. 9(5):363-73.
[PubMed]

Reschly E, Ai N, Welsh W, Ekins S, Hagey L, Krasowski M.  Ligand specificity and evolution of liver X receptors.  J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol.  2008 May. 110(2-Jan):83-94.
[PubMed]

Ekins S, Reschly E, Hagey L, Krasowski M.  Evolution of pharmacologic specificity in the pregnane X receptor.  BMC Evol Biol.  2008. 8:103.
[PubMed]

Greiner-Sosanko E, Giannoutsos S, Lower D, Virji M, Krasowski M.  Drug monitoring: simultaneous analysis of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, 10-hydroxycarbazepine, and zonisamide by HPLC-UV and a rapid GC method using a nitrogen-phosphorus detector for levetiracetam.  J Chromatogr Sci.  2007 October. 45(9):616-22.
[PubMed]

Ekins S, Chang C, Mani S, Krasowski M, Reschly E, Iyer M, Kholodovych V, Ai N, Welsh W, Sinz M, Swaan P, Patel R, Bachmann K.  Human pregnane X receptor antagonists and agonists define molecular requirements for different binding sites.  Mol Pharmacol.  2007 September. 72(3):592-603.
[PubMed]

Genzen J, Krasowski M.  Resident training in clinical chemistry.  Clin Lab Med.  2007 June. 27(2):343-58; abstract vii.
[PubMed]

Baron B, Zeleznik-Le N, Baron M, Theisler C, Huo D, Krasowski M, Thirman M, Baron R, Baron J.  Repression of the PDCD2 gene by BCL6 and the implications for the pathogenesis of human B and T cell lymphomas.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  2007 May. 104(18):7449-54.
[PubMed]

Greiner-Sosanko E, Lower D, Virji M, Krasowski M.  Simultaneous determination of lamotrigine, zonisamide, and carbamazepine in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.  Biomed Chromatogr.  2007 March. 21(3):225-8.
[PubMed]

Reschly E, Bainy A, Mattos J, Hagey L, Bahary N, Mada S, Ou J, Venkataramanan R, Krasowski M.  Functional evolution of the vitamin D and pregnane X receptors.  BMC Evol Biol.  2007. 7:222.
[PubMed]

Adams Y, Krasowski M.  Pharmacogenomics in primary care.  New York: McGraw Hill Lange.  2007. 

Iyer M, Reschly E, Krasowski M.  Functional evolution of the pregnane X receptor.  Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol.  2006 June. 2(3):381-97.
[PubMed]

Reschly E, Krasowski M.  Evolution and function of the NR1I nuclear hormone receptor subfamily (VDR, PXR, and CAR) with respect to metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.  Curr Drug Metab.  2006 May. 7(4):349-65.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Yasuda K, Hagey L, Schuetz E.  Evolutionary selection across the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily with a focus on the NR1I subfamily (vitamin D, pregnane X, and constitutive androstane receptors).  Nucl Recept.  2005 September. 3:2.
[PubMed]

Thompson E, Kuttab-Boulos H, Krasowski M, Di Rienzo A.  Functional constraints on the constitutive androstane receptor inferred from human sequence variation and cross-species comparisons.  Hum Genomics.  2005 September. 2(3):168-78.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Yasuda K, Hagey L, Schuetz E.  Evolution of the pregnane x receptor: adaptation to cross-species differences in biliary bile salts.  Mol Endocrinol.  2005 July. 19(7):1720-39.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  GPI-15715 Guilford.  Curr Opin Investig Drugs.  2005 January. 6(1):90-8.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  Contradicting a unitary theory of general anesthetic action: a history of three compounds from 1901 to 2001.  Bull Anesth Hist.  2003 July. 21(3):1, 4-8, 21 passim.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Hong X, Hopfinger A, Harrison N.  4D-QSAR analysis of a set of propofol analogues: mapping binding sites for an anesthetic phenol on the GABA(A) receptor.  J Med Chem.  2002 July. 45(15):3210-21.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Nishikawa K, Nikolaeva N, Lin A, Harrison N.  Methionine 286 in transmembrane domain 3 of the GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor beta subunit controls a binding cavity for propofol and other alkylphenol general anesthetics.  Neuropharmacology.  2001 December. 41(8):952-64.
[PubMed]

Lingamaneni R, Krasowski M, Jenkins A, Truong T, Giunta A, Blackbeer J, MacIver M, Harrison N, Hemmings H.  Anesthetic properties of 4-iodopropofol: implications for mechanisms of anesthesia.  Anesthesiology.  2001 June. 94(6):1050-7.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Jenkins A, Flood P, Kung A, Hopfinger A, Harrison N.  General anesthetic potencies of a series of propofol analogs correlate with potency for potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) current at the GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor but not with lipid solubility.  J Pharmacol Exp Ther.  2001 April. 297(1):338-51.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Harris R, Harrison N.  Allosteric modulation of GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor function by general anesthetics and alcohols.  Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  2001. 150:141-172.

McGehee D, Krasowski M, Fung D, Wilson B, Gronert G, Moss J.  Cholinesterase inhibition by potato glycoalkaloids slows mivacurium metabolism.  Anesthesiology.  2000 August. 93(2):510-9.
[PubMed]

Vandenbergh D, Thompson M, Cook E, Bendahhou E, Nguyen T, Krasowski M, Zarrabian D, Comings D, Sellers E, Tyndale R, George S, O'Dowd B, Uhl G.  Human dopamine transporter gene: coding region conservation among normal, Tourette's disorder, alcohol dependence and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder populations.  Mol Psychiatry.  2000 May. 5(3):283-92.
[PubMed]

Flood P, Krasowski M.  Intravenous anesthetics differentially modulate ligand-gated ion channels.  Anesthesiology.  2000 May. 92(5):1418-25.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M.  Differential modulatory actions of the volatile convulsant flurothyl and its anesthetic isomer at inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels.  Neuropharmacology.  2000 April. 39(7):1168-83.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Harrison N.  The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABA<sub>A</sub> and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations.  Br J Neuropharm.  2000 February. 129(4):731-43.
[PubMed]

Harrison N, Krasowski M, Harris R.  Alcohol and general anesthetic actions on the GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor.  Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .  2000. 

Homanics G, Harrison N, Quinlan J, Krasowski M, Rick C, de Blas A, Mehta A, Kist F, Mihalek R, Aul J, Firestone L.  Normal electrophysiological and behavioral responses to ethanol in mice lacking the long splice variant of the gamma2 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyrate type A receptor.  Neuropharmacology.  1999 February. 38(2):253-65.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Koltchine V, Rick C, Ye Q, Finn S, Harrison N.  Propofol and other intravenous anesthetics have sites of action on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor distinct from that for isoflurane.  Mol Pharmacol.  1998 March. 53(3):530-8.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, Finn S, Ye Q, Harrison N.  Trichloroethanol modulation of recombinant GABA<sub>A</sub>, glycine and GABA rho 1 receptors..  J Pharmacol Exp Ther.  1998 March. 284(3):934-42.
[PubMed]

Mihic S, Ye Q, Wick M, Koltchine V, Krasowski M, Finn S, Mascia M, Valenzuela C, Hanson K, Greenblatt E, Harris R, Harrison N.  Sites of alcohol and volatile anaesthetic action on GABA<sub>A</sub> and glycine receptors.  Nature.  1997 September. 389(6649):385-9.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, O'Shea S, Rick C, Whiting P, Hadingham K, Czajkowski C, Harrison N.  Alpha subunit isoform influences GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor modulation by propofol.  Neuropharmacology.  1997 July. 36(7):941-9.
[PubMed]

Krasowski M, McGehee D, Moss J.  Natural inhibitors of cholinesterases: implications for adverse drug reactions.  Can J Anaesth.  1997 May. 44(5 Pt 1):525-34.
[PubMed]

Homanics G, DeLorey T, Firestone L, Quinlan J, Handforth A, Harrison N, Krasowski M, Rick C, Korpi E, Mäkelä R, Brilliant M, Hagiwara N, Ferguson C, Snyder K, Olsen R.  Mice devoid of gamma-aminobutyrate type A receptor beta3 subunit have epilepsy, cleft palate, and hypersensitive behavior.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  1997 April. 94(8):4143-8.
[PubMed]

Stein M, Krasowski M, Leventhal B, Phillips W, Bender B.  Behavioral and cognitive effects of methylxanthines. A meta-analysis of theophylline and caffeine.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.  1996 March. 150(3):284-8.
[PubMed]

Cook E, Stein M, Krasowski M, Cox N, Olkon D, Kieffer J, Leventhal B.  Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene.  Am J Hum Genet.  1995 April. 56(4):993-8.
[PubMed]

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