Neurosurgery

Matthew A. Howard, III, MD

Portrait

Chairman
John C. VanGilder Chair in Neurosurgery
Professor
Professor of Neurosurgery
Professor of Neurology, Otolaryngology

Contact Information

Office: 1823 JPP
Iowa City, IA 52242
Office Phone: 319-356-8468

Email: matthew-howard@uiowa.edu

Education

BS, Physics and Biology, Tufts University
MD, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

Internship, General Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle
Post Doctoral, University of Washington and University of Pittsburgh
Fellowship, Epilepsy, University of Washington
Senior Registrar, Atkinson Morley's Hospital, London
Residency, Neurosurgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Licensure and Certifications

Iowa Medical License, Iowa Board of Medicine
Washington Medical License, Washington Board of Medicine
Board Certified in Neurosurgery

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biosciences Graduate Program
Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience
Medical Scientist Training Program

Research Summary

Epilepsy, Neural Basis of Audition

All Publications

Chiang H, Kamath A, Pottinger J, Greenlee J, Howard M, Cavanaugh J, Herwaldt L.  Risk factors and outcomes associated with surgical site infections after craniotomy or craniectomy.  J Neurosurg.  2014 February. 120(2):509-21.
[PubMed]

Nourski K, Steinschneider M, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Jones R, Howard M.  Spectral organization of the human lateral superior temporal gyrus revealed by intracranial recordings.  Cereb Cortex.  2014 February. 24(2):340-52.
[PubMed]

Abel T, Rhone A, Nourski K, Granner M, Oya H, Griffiths T, Tranel D, Kawasaki H, Howard M.  Mapping the temporal pole with a specialized electrode array: technique and preliminary results.  Physiol Meas.  2014 January. 35(3):323-37.
[PubMed]

Viljoen S, Smittkamp C, Dalm B, Wilson S, Reddy C, Gillies G, Howard M.  MR-based measurement of spinal cord motion during flexion of the spine: implications for intradural spinal cord stimulator systems.  J Med Eng Technol.  2014 January. 38(1):1-4.
[PubMed]

Kung D, Chalouhi N, Jabbour P, Starke R, Dumont A, Winn H, Howard M, Hasan D.  Cerebral blood flow dynamics and head-of-bed changes in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  Biomed Res Int.  2013 November. 
[PubMed]

Dalm B, Brennan T, Elahi F, Howard M, Reddy C.  Successful conservative management of an intrathecal catheter-associated inflammatory mass.  Spine J.  2013 November. 13(11):1708-9.
[PubMed]

Garell P, Bakken H, Greenlee J, Reale R, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Howard M, Brugge J.  Functional connection between posterior superior temporal gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in human.  Cereb Cortex.  2013 October. 23(10):2309-21.
[PubMed]

Yin T, Lindley T, Albert G, Ahmed R, Schmeiser P, Grady M, Howard M, Welsh M.  Loss of Acid sensing ion channel-1a and bicarbonate administration attenuate the severity of traumatic brain injury.  PLoS One.  2013 August. 8(8):e72379.
[PubMed]

Wassef S, Abel T, Grossbach A, Viljoen S, Jackson A, Howard M, Greenlee J.  Traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients taking dabigatran: report of 3 cases and review of the literature.  Neurosurgery.  2013 August. 73(2):E368-73.
[PubMed]

Dahdaleh N, Viljoen S, Dalm B, Howard M, Grosland N.  Posterior ligamentous complex healing following disruption in thoracolumbar fractures.  Med Hypotheses.  2013 July. 81(1):117-8.
[PubMed]

Nourski K, Eitler C, Brugge J, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Reale R, Abbas P, Brown C, Howard M.  Direct recordings from the auditory cortex in a cochlear implant user.  J Assoc Res Otolaryngol.  2013 June. 14(3):435-50.
[PubMed]

Greenlee j, Behroozmand R, Larson C, Jackson A, Chen F, Hansen D, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Howard M.  Sensory-motor interactions for vocal pitch monitoring in non-primary human auditory cortex.  PLoS One.  2013 April. 8(4):e60783.
[PubMed]

Nourski K, Brugge J, Reale R, Kovach C, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Jenison R, Howard M.  Coding of repetitive transients by auditory cortex on posterolateral superior temporal gyrus in humans: an intracranial electrophysiology study.  J Neurophysiol.  2013 March. 109(5):1283-95.
[PubMed]

Dlouhy B, Dahdaleh N, Howard M.  Radiographic and intraoperative imaging of a hemisection of the spinal cord resulting in a pure Brown-Sequard syndrome: case report and review of the literature.  J Neurosurg Sci.  2013 March. 57(1):81-6.
[PubMed]

Flouty O, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Reddy C, Fredericks D, Gibson-Corley K, Jeffery N, Gillies G, Howard M.  Intracranial somatosensory responses with direct spinal cord stimulation in anesthesized sheep.  PLoS One.  2013 February. 8(2):e56266.
[PubMed]

Song S, Gillies G, Howard M, Kuhnley B, Utz M.  Power and signal transmission protocol for a contactless subdural spinal cord stimulation device.  Biomed Microdevices.  2013 February. 15(1):27-36.
[PubMed]

Flouty O, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Wilson S, Reddy C, Jeffery N, Brennan T, Gibson-Corley K, Utz M, Gillies G, Howard M.  A new device concept for directly modulating spinal cord pathways: initial in vivo experimental results.  Physiol Meas.  2012 December. 33(12):2003-15.
[PubMed]

Gibson-Corley K, Oya H, Flouty O, Fredericks D, Jeffery N, Gillies G, Howard M.  Ovine tests of a novel spinal cord neuromodulator and dentate ligament fixation method.  J Invest Surg.  2012 December. 25(6):366-74.
[PubMed]

Oya H, Howard M, Shurig R, Gillies G.  Spinal cord surrogate for testing intradural implants.  J Med Ehg Technol.  2012 November. 36(8):407-10.
[PubMed]

Dahdaleh N, Dlouhy B, Viljoen S, Capuano A, Kung D, Torner J, Hasan D, Howard M.  Clinical and radiographic predictors of neurological outcome following posterior fossa decompression for spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage.  J Clin Neurosci.  2012 September. 19(9):1236-41.
[PubMed]

Kawasaki H, Tsuchiya N, Kovach C, Nourski K, Oya H, Howard M, Adolphs R.  Processing of facial emotion in the human fusiform gyrus.  J Cogn Neurosci.  2012 June. 24(6):1358-70.
[PubMed]

Oya H, Reddy C, Dahdaleh N, Wilson S, Howard M, Jeffery N, Utz M, Gillies G.  Applier tool for intradural spinal cord implants.  J Med Eng Technol.  2012 April. 36(3):169-73.
[PubMed]

Dlouhy B, Viljoen S, Kung D, Vogel T, Granner M, Howard M, Kawasaki H.  Vagus nerve stimulation after lead revision.  Neurosurg Focus.  2012 March. 32(3):E11.
[PubMed]

Wilson S, Howard M, Rossen J, Brennan T, Dalm B, Dahdaleh N, Utz M, Gillies G.  Pulsatile spinal cord surrogate for intradural neuromodulation studies.  J Med Eng Technol.  2012 January. 36(1):22-5.
[PubMed]

Steinschneider M, Nourski K, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Brugge J, Howard M.  Intracranial study of speech-elicited activity on the human posterolateral superior temporal gyrus.  Cereb Cortex.  2011 October. 21(10):2332-47.
[PubMed]

Kumar S, Sedley W, Nourski K, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Patterson R, Howard M, Friston K, Griffiths T.  Predictive coding and pitch processing in the auditory cortex.  J Cogn Neurosci.  2011 October. 23(10):3084-94.
[PubMed]

Vogel T, Dlouhy B, Howard M.  Don't take the plunge: avoiding adverse events with cranial perforators.  J Neurosurg.  2011 September. 115(3):570-5.
[PubMed]

Chiang H, Steelman V, Pottinger J, Schlueter A, Diekema D, Greenlee J, Howard M, Herwaldt L.  Clinical significance of positive cranial bone flap cultures and associated risk of surgical site infection after craniotomies or craniectomies.  J Neurosurg.  2011 June. 114(6):1746-54.
[PubMed]

Kung D, Policeni B, Capuano A, Rossen J, Jabbour P, Torner J, Howard M, Hasan D.  Risk of ventriculostomy-related hemorrhage in patients with acutely ruptured aneurysms treated using stent-assisted coiling.  J Neurosurg.  2011 April. 114(4):1021-7.
[PubMed]

Greenlee J, Jackson A, Chen F, Larson C, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Chen H, Howard M.  Human auditory cortical activation during self-vocalization.  PLoS One.  2011 March. 6(3):e14744.
[PubMed]

Kovach C, Tsuchiya N, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Howard M, Adolphs R.  Manifestation of ocular-muscle EMG contamination in human intracranial recordings.  Neuroimage.  2011 January. 54(1):213-33.
[PubMed]

Jenison R, Rangel A, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Howard M.  Value encoding in single neurons in the human amygdala during decision making.  J Neurosci.  2011 January. 31(1):331-8.
[PubMed]

Vogel T, Dlouhy B, Howard M.  Use of confirmatory imaging studies to illustrate adequate treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leak in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  J Neurosurg.  2010 November. 113(5):955-60.
[PubMed]

Reddy C, Dahdaleh N, Albert G, Chen F, Hansen D, Nourski K, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Howard M.  A method for placing Heschl gyrus depth electrodes.  J Neurosurg.  2010 June. 112(6):1301-7.
[PubMed]

Griffiths T, Kumar S, Sedley W, Nourski K, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Patterson R, Brugge J, Howard M.  Direct recordings of pitch responses form human auditory cortex.  Curr Biol.  2010 June. 20(12):1128-32.
[PubMed]

Albert G, Dahdaleh N, Reddy C, Hansen D, Vogel T, Kawasaki H, Howard M.  Postoperative radiographic findings in patients undergoing intracranial electrode monitoring for medically refractory epilepsy.  J Neurosurg.  2010 February. 112(2):449-54.
[PubMed]

Dahdaleh N, Lindley T, Kirby P, Oya H, Howard M.  A "neurosurgical crisis" of sickle cell disease.  J Neurosurg Pediatr.  2009 December. 4(6):532-5.
[PubMed]

Nourski K, Reale R, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Kovach C, Chen H, Howard M, Brugge J.  Temporal envelope of time-compressed speech represented in the human auditory cortex.  J Neurosci.  2009 December. 29(49):15564-74.
[PubMed]

Ziemann A, Allen J, Dahdaleh N, Drebot I, Coryell M, Wunsch A, Lynch C, Faraci F, Howard M, Welsh M, Wemmie J.  The amygdala is a chemosensor that detects carbon dioxide and acidosis to elicit fear behavior.  Cell.  2009 November. 139(5):1012-21.
[PubMed]

Brugge J, Nourski K, Oya H, Reale R, Kawasaki H, Steinschneider M, Howard M.  Coding of repetitive transients by auditory cortex on Heschl's gyrus.  J Neurophysiol.  2009 October. 102(4):2358-74.
[PubMed]

Reddy C, Reddy G, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Miller L, Howard M.  Decoding movement-related cortical potentials from electrocorticography.  Neurosurg Focus.  2009 July. 27(1):E11.
[PubMed]

Oya H, Kawasaki H, Dahdaleh N, Wemmie J, Howard M.  Stereotactic atlas-based depth electrode localization in the human amygdale.  Stereotact Funct Neurosurg.  2009 June. 87(4):219-28.
[PubMed]

Tsuchiya N, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Howard M, Adolphs R.  Decoding face information in time, frequency and space from direct intracranial recordings of the human brain.  PLoS One.  2008 December. 3(12):e3892.
[PubMed]

Ziemann A, Schnizler M, Albert G, Severson M, Howard M, Welsh M, Wemmie J.  Seizure termination by acidosis depends on ASIC1a.  Nat Neurosci.  2008 July. 11(7):816-22.
[PubMed]

Brugge J, Volkov I, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Reale R, Fenoy A, Steinschneider M, Howard M.  Functional localization of auditory cortical fields of human: click-train stimulation.  Hear Res.  2008 April. 238(1-2):12-24.
[PubMed]

Greenlee J, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Volkov I, Severson M, Howard M, Brugge J.  Functional connections within the human inferior frontal gyrus.  J Comp Neurol.  2007 August. 503(4):550-9.
[PubMed]

Oya H, Poon P, Brugge J, Reale R, Kawasaki H, Volkov I, Howard M.  Functional connections between auditory cortical fields in humans revealed by Granger causality analysis of intra-cranial evoked potentials to sounds: Comparison of two methods.  Biosystems.  2007 May. 89(1-3):198-207.
[PubMed]

Reale R, Calvert G, Thesen T, Jenison R, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Howard M, Brugge J.  Auditory-visual processing represented in the human superior temporal gyrus.  Neuroscience.  2007 March. 145(1):162-84.
[PubMed]

Fenoy A, Severson M, Volkov I, Brugge J, Howard M.  Hearing suppression induced by electrical stimulation of human auditory cortex.  Brain Res.  2006 November. 1118(1):75-83.
[PubMed]

Kawasaki H, Adolphs R, Oya H, Kovach C, Damasio H, Kaufman O, Howard M.  Analysis of single-unit responses to emotional scenes in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex.  J Cogn Neurosci.  2005 October. 17(10):1509-18.
[PubMed]

Oya H, Adolphs R, Kawasaki H, Bechara A, Damasio A, Howard M.  Electrophysiological correlates of reward prediction error recorded in the human prefrontal cortex.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.  2005 June. 102(23):8351-6.
[PubMed]

Steinschneider M, Volkov I, Fishman Y, Oya H, Arezzo J, Howard M.  Intracortical responses in human and monkey primary auditory cortex support a temporal processing mechanism for encoding of the voice onset time phonetic parameter.  Cereb Cortex.  2005 February. 15(2):170-86.
[PubMed]

Greenlee J, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Volkov I, Kaufman O, Kovach C, Howard M, Brugge J.  A functional connection between inferior frontal gyrus and orofacial motor cortex in human.  J Neurophysiol.  2004 August. 92(2):1153-64.
[PubMed]

Brugge J, Volkov I, Garrell P, Reale R, Howard M.  Functional connections between auditory cortex on Heschl's gyrus and on the lateral superior temporal gyrus in humans.  J Neurophysiol.  2003 December. 90(6):3750-63.
[PubMed]

Bakken H, Kawasaki H, Oya H, Greenlee J, Howard M.  A device for cooling localized regions of human cerebral cortex. Technical note.  J Neurosurg.  2003 September. 99(3):604-8.
[PubMed]

Oya H, Kawasaki H, Howard M, Adolphs R.  Electrophysiological responses in the human amygdala discriminate emotion categories of complex visual stimuli.  J Neurosci.  2002 November. 22(21):9502-12.
[PubMed]

Gunnett C, Lund D, Howard M, Chu Y, Faraci F, Heistad D.  Gene transfer of inducible nitric oxide synthase impairs relaxation in human and rabbit cerebral arteries.  Stroke.  2002 September. 33(9):2292-6.
[PubMed]

Fishman Y, Volkov I, Noh M, Garell P, Bakken H, Arezzo J, Howard M, Steinschneider M.  Consonance and dissonance of musical chords: neural correlates in auditory cortex of monkeys and humans.  J Neurophysiol.  2001 December. 86(6):2761-88.
[PubMed]

Kawasaki H, Kaufman O, Damasio H, Damasio A, Granner M, Bakken H, Hori T, Howard M, Adolphs R.  Single-neuron responses to emotional visual stimuli recorded in human ventral prefrontal cortex.  Nat Neurosci.  2001 January. 4(1):15-6.
[PubMed]

Heth J, Howard M, Rossi N.  Paraparesis induced by inflammatory contents of a pneumonectomy cavity. Case report.  J Neurosurg.  2000 December. 93(6):1065-8.
[PubMed]

Wang G, Skinner M, Rubinstein J, Howard M, Vannier M.  Digital X-ray stereophotogrammetry for cochlear implantation.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.  2000 August. 47(8):1120-30.
[PubMed]

Grady M, Howard M, Dacey R, Blume W, Lawson M, Werp P, Ritter R.  Experimental study of the magnetic stereotaxis system for catheter manipulation within the brain.  J Neurosurg.  2000 August. 93(2):282-8.
[PubMed]

Nawrot M, Rizzo M, Rockland K, Howard M.  A transient deficit of motion perception in human.  Vision Res.  2000. 40(24):3435-46.
[PubMed]

Steinschneider M, Volkov I, Noh M, Garell P, Howard M.  Temporal encoding of the voice onset time phonetic parameter by field potentials recorded directly from human auditory cortex.  J Neurophysiol.  1999 November. 82(5):2346-57.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Abkes B, Ollendieck M, Noh M, Ritter R, Gillies G.  Measurement of the force required to move a neurosurgical probe through in vivo human brain tissue.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.  1999 July. 46(7):891-4.
[PubMed]

Garell P, Mirsky R, Noh M, Loftus C, Hitchon P, Grady M, Dacey R, Howard M.  Posterior ventricular catheter burr-hole localizer. Technical note.  J Neurosurg.  1998 July. 89(1):157-60.
[PubMed]

Wellman B, Loftus C, Noh D, Barnhart W, Howard M.  A combined surgical-endovascular device concept for giant aneurysm neck occlusion.  Neurosurgery.  1998 June. 42(6):1364-8 discussion 1368-9.
[PubMed]

Ritter R, Quate E, Gillies G, Grady M, Howard M, Broaddus W.  Measurement of friction on straight catheters in in vitro brain and phantom material.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.  1998 April. 45(4):476-85.
[PubMed]

Mirsky R, McCollough T, Grady M, Winn H, Howard M, Gillies G.  An illuminating retractor for intracranial microneurosurgery.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.  1998 January. 45(1):129-31.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Reed L, Mirsky R, Abkes B, Volkov I.  An integrated multipurpose lesion-making electrode.  Neurosurgery.  1998 January. 42(1):137-40 discussion 141-2.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Volkov I, Noh M, Granner M, Mirsky R, Garell P.  Chronic microelectrode investigations of normal human brain physiology using a hybrid depth electrode.  Stereotact Funct Neurosurg.  1997. 68(1-4 Pt 1):236-42.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Volkov I, Abbas P, Damasio H, Ollendieck M, Granner M.  A chronic microelectrode investigation of the tonotopic organization of human auditory cortex.  Brain Res.  1996 June. 724(2):260-4.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Grady M, Ritter R, Gillies G, Broaddus W, Dacey R.  Magnetic Neurosurgery.  Stereotact Funct Neurosurg.  1996. 66(1-3):102-7.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Henegar M, Dacey R, Grady M, Ritter R, Gillies G.  Magnetic neurosurgery: image-guided, remote-controlled movements of neurosurgical implants.  Clin Neurosurg.  1996. 43:382-91.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Volkov I, Granner M, Damasio H, Ollendieck M, Bakken H.  A hybrid clinical-research depth electrode for acute and chronic in vivo microelectrode recording of human brain neurons. Technical note.  J Neurosurg.  1996 January. 84(1):129-32.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Dobbs M, Simonson T, LaVelle W, Granner M.  A noninvasive, reattachable skull fiducial marker system. Technical note.  J Neurosurg.  1995 August. 83(2):372-6.
[PubMed]

McNeil R, Ritter R, Wang B, Lawson M, Gillies G, Wika K, Quate E, Howard M, Grady M.  Characteristics of an improved magnetic-implant guidance system.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.  1995 August. 42(8):802-8.
[PubMed]

McNeil R, Ritter R, Wang B, Lawson M, Gillies G, Wika K, Quate E, Howard M, Grady M.  Functional design features and initial performance characteristics of a magnetic-implant guidance system for stereotactic neurosurgery.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.  1995 August. 42(8):793-801.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Srinivasan J, Winn H, Grady M.  A guide for placement of parietooccipital ventricular catheters. Technical note.  J Neurosurg.  1995 February. 82(2):300-4.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Dacey R, Henegar M, Grady M, Ritter R, Gillies G.  Review of magnetic neurosurgery research.  J Image Guid Surg.  1995. 1(6):295-9.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Simons D.  Physiological effects of nucleus basalis magnocellularis stimulation on rat barrel cortex neurons.  Exp Brain Res.  1994. 102(1):21-33.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Bell B, Uttley D.  The pathophysiology of infant subdural hematomas.  Br J Neurosurg.  1993. 7(4):355-65.
[PubMed]

Quate E, Wika K, Lawson M, Gillies G, Ritter R, Grady M, Howard M.  Goniometric motion controller for the superconducting coil in a magnetic stereotaxis system.  IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.  1991 September. 38(9):899-905.
[PubMed]

Ibayashi S, Nagai A, Howard M, Meno J, Mayberg M, Winn H.  Lack of sympathetic and cholinergic influences on cerebral vasodilation caused by sciatic nerve stimulation in the rat.  J Cereb Blood Flow Metab.  1991 July. 11(4):678-83.
[PubMed]

Molloy J, Ritter R, Broaddus W, Grady M, Howard M, Quate E, Gillies G.  Thermodynamics of movable inductively heated seeds for the treatment of brain tumors.  Med Phys.  1991 July. 18(4):794-803.
[PubMed]

Grady M, Howard M, Broaddus W, Molloy J, Ritter R, Quate E, Gillies G.  Magnetic stereotaxis: a technique to deliver stereotactic hyperthermia.  J Neurosurg.  1990 December. 27(6):1010-6.
[PubMed]

LeRoux P, Howard M, Winn H.  Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in hydrocephalic shunt prophylaxis and relationship to ventricular volume.  Surg Neurol.  1990 December. 34(6):366-72.
[PubMed]

Grady M, Howard M, Molloy J, Ritter R, Quate E, Gillies G.  Nonlinear magnetic stereotaxis: three-dimensional, in vivo remote magnetic manipulation of a small object in canine brain.  Med Phys.  1990 May. 17(3):405-15.
[PubMed]

Molloy J, Ritter R, Grady M, Howard M, Quate E, Gillies G.  Experimental determination of the force required for insertion of a thermoseed into deep brain tissue.  Ann Biomed Eng.  1990. 18(3):299-313.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Gross A, Dacey R, Winn H.  Acute subdural hematoma: an age dependent clinical entity.  J Neurosurg.  1989 December. 71(6):858-64.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Gross A, Grady M, Langer R, Mathiowitz E, Winn H, Mayberg M.  Intracerebral drug delivery in rats lesion-induced memory deficits.  J Neurosurg.  1989 July. 71(1):105-12.
[PubMed]

Grady M, Howard M, Molloy J, Ritter R, Quate E, Gillies G.  Preliminary experimental investigation of in vivo magnetic manipulation: results and potential application in hypothermia.  Med Phys.  1989 March. 16(2):263-72.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Dacey R, Winn H.  Brain xenografts: the effect of cyclosporin A on graft survival.  J Neurosurg.  1988 July. 69(1):121-126.
[PubMed]

Howard M, Grady M, Park T, Scheld W.  Pharmacokinetics of Intraventricular vancomycin in Hydrocephalic Rats.  Neurosurgery.  1986 June. 18(6):725-9.
[PubMed]

Grady M, Howard M, Jane J, Persing J.  Use of the Philadelphia Coller as an Alternative to the Halo Vest in Patients with C2-C3 Fractures.  Neurosurgery.  1986 February. 18(2):151-6.
[PubMed]

 ,  ,  . 

Date Last Modified: 06/07/2014 - 21:56:23