Microbiology

Steven M. Varga, PhD

Portrait

Director, Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology
Associate Professor of Microbiology
Associate Professor of Pathology

Contact Information

Office: 3-532 Bowen Science Building
51 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52242
Office Phone: 319-335-7784

Lab: 3-501 Bowen Science Building
51 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52242
Phone: 319-335-8433

Email: steven-varga@uiowa.edu
Web: Varga Lab Website

Education

BS, Biology, University of Notre Dame
PhD, Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School

Post Doctoral, Pulmonary Immunology, Beirne B. Carter Center for Immunology Research, University of Virginia

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biosciences Graduate Program
Department of Microbiology Graduate Program
Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology
Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine
Medical Scientist Training Program

Research Summary

My laboratory is interested in studying the contribution of virus-specific T lymphocytes to enhanced disease and immunopathology during virus infection. Our laboratory studies the mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide. An experimental RSV vaccine developed in the United States during the 1960's led to exacerbated disease in vaccinated infants on subsequent natural infection. It is believed that the immune system was largely responsible for the enhanced disease exhibited by the vaccinated children. We are currently studying the mechanisms by which virus-specific CD4 T cells mediate damage within the infected lung as well as their role in causing systemic illness.

Our work has recently demonstrated that the vast majority of epitope-specific CD4 T cells express a conserved Vb14 T cell receptor and that mice depleted of these cells in vivo fail to develop enhanced disease following experimental RSV infection. In a related series of studies, we are examining the peptide specificities of the virus-specific CD4 T cells and determining which factors contribute to the development of virus-specific Th1 and Th2 CD4 T cells in vivo. The goal of our studies is to gain a better understanding of the immune determinants that lead to RSV vaccine-enhanced disease so that safer and more effective vaccines can be developed in the future.

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Center for Immunology and Immune-based Diseases
Helen C. Levitt Center for Viral Pathogenesis
Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center

All Publications

Christiaansen A, Boggiatto P, Varga S.  Limitations of Foxp3+ Treg depletion following viral infection in DEREG mice.  J Immunol Methods.  2014 April. 406:58-65.
[Link]

Alsuwaidi A, Albawardi A, Almarzooqi S, Benedict S, Othman A, Hartwig S, Varga S, Souid A.  Respiratory syncytial virus increases lung cellular bioenergetics in neonatal C57BL/6 mice.  Virology.  2014 April. 454-455:263-9.
[Link]

Hartwig S, Holman K, Varga S.  Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Ameliorates Virus-Induced Disease following a Pulmonary Coronavirus Infection.  PLoS One.  2014 March 7. 9(3):e90720.
[Link]

McDermott D, Knudson C, Varga S.  Determining the breadth of the respiratory syncytial virus-specific T cell response.  J Virol.  2014 March. 88(6):3135-43.
[Link]

Weiss K, Knudson C, Christiaansen A, Varga S.  Animal Models of Human Respiratory Viral Infections.  Taylor & Francis Group/CRC Press.  2014. 

Knudson C, Pewe L, Gibson-Corley K, Meyerholz D, Harty J, Varga S.  Memory CD8 T cells provide protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection at the cost of severe pulmonary immunopathology.  Keystone Conference Symposia: Pathogenesis of Respiratory Viruses.  2014. 

Yang K, Varga S.  Mucosal vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus.  Curr Opin Virol.  2014. 
[Link]

Syed M, Christiaansen A, Kamath S, Morriss F, Varga S.  Role of T Regulatory Cells in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.  Society of Critical Care Medicine 43rd Critical Care Congress.  2014. 

Knudson C, Hartwig S, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  RSV vaccine-enhanced disease is orchestrated by the combined actions of distinct memory CD4 T cell subsets.  2014. 

Christiaansen A, Knudson C, Weiss K, Varga S.  The CD4 T cell response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.  Immunol Res.  2014. 
[Link]

Christiaansen A, Hartwig S, Varga S.  The innate immune response differentially regulates chronic viral infection in BALB/c versus C57BL/6 mice.  Keystone Conference Symposia: Innate Immunity to Viral Infections.  2014. 

Knudson C, Weiss K, Hartwig S, Varga S.  The pulmonary localization of virus-specific T lymphocytes is governed by the tissue tropism of infection.  J Virol.  2014. 
[Link]

Knudson C, Varga S.  The Relationship Between Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Asthma.  Vet Pathol.  2014. 
[Link]

Weiss K, Knudson C, Hartwig S, Varga S.  Viral tropism dictates the frequency of effector T cell migration into the lung tissue.  Keystone Conference Symposia: Pathogenesis of Respiratory Viruses.  2014. 

Dersheid R, Gallup J, Knudson C, Varga S, Grosz D, van Geelen A, Hostetter S, Ackermann M.  Effects of Formalin-inactivated Respiratory Syncytial Virus (FI-RSV) in the Perinatal Lamb Model of RSV.  PLoS One.  2013 December 6. 8(12):e81472.
[Link]

Fulton R, Weiss K, Pewe L, Harty J, Varga S.  Aged Mice Exhibit a Severely Diminished CD8 T Cell Response following Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.  J Virol.  2013 December. 87(23):12694-700.
[Link]

Alsuwaidi A, Almarzooqi S, Albawardi A, Benedict S, Kochiyil J, Mustafa F, Hartwig S, Varga S, Souid A.  Cellular bioenergetics, caspase activity and glutathione in murine lungs infected with influenza A virus.  Virology.  2013 November. 446(1-2):180-8.
[Link]

Alsuwaidi A, Benedict S, Kochiyil J, Mustafa F, Hartwig S, Almarzooqi S, Albawardi A, Rizvi T, Varga S, Souid A.  Bioenergetics of murine lungs infected with respiratory syncytial virus.  Virol J.  2013 January 15. 10(1):22.
[Link]

Alsuwaidi A, Alsamri M, Alfazari A, Almarzooqi S, Albawardi A, Othman A, Pramathan T, Hartwig S, Varga S, Souid A.  Lung tissue bioenergetics and caspase activity in rodents.  BMC Res Notes.  2013 January 12. 6:12.
[Link]

Klesney-Tait J, Keck K, Li X, Gilfillan S, Otero K, Baruah S, Meyerholz D, Varga S, Knudson C, Moninger T, Moreland J, Zabner J, Colonna M.  Transepithelial migration of neutrophils into the lung requires TREM-1.  J Clin Invest.  2013 January 2. 123(1):138-49.
[Link]

Christiaansen A, Boggiatto P, Hartwig S, Varga S.  CD8 T cell exhaustion is influenced by genetic background.  Immunology 2013.  2013. 

McDermott D, Varga S.  Critical role of PD-L2 in limiting pulmonary immunopathology during RSV infection.  Immunology 2013.  2013. 

Weiss K, Fulton R, Varga S.  Diminished acute CD8 T cell responses with a similar memory response generated in aged mice following RSV infection.  42nd Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2013. 

Knudson C, Hartwig S, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Enhanced disease associated with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccination is not dependent upon eosinophils.  RSV Vaccines for the World.  2013. 

Knudson C, Gibson-Corley K, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Memory CD8 T cells provide protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection at the cost of severe pulmonary immunopathology.  42nd Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2013. 

Whitmore L, Hilkin B, Goss K, Wahle E, Colaizy T, Boggiatto P, Varga S, Miller F, Moreland J.  NOX2 Protects against Prolonged Inflammation, Lung Injury, and Mortality following Systemic Insults.  J Innate Immun.  2013. 5(6):565-80.
[Link]

Weiss K, Varga S.  Respiratory syncytial virus strains induce differential innate immune and CD4 T cell responses.  Immunology 2013.  2013. 

Knudson C, Hartwig S, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Th2-independent development of vaccine-enhanced disease associated with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus immunization.  Immunology 2013.  2013. 

Varga S, Braciale T.  The adaptive immune response to respiratory syncytial virus.  Springer.  2013. 372:155-71.
[Link]

Olson M, McDermott D, Varga S.  The initial draining lymph node primes the bulk of the CD8 T cell response and influences memory T cell trafficking after a systemic viral infection.  PLoS Pathog.  2012 December. 8(12):e1003054.
[Link]

Alsuwaidi A, Benedict S, Mustafa F, Almarzooqi S, Albawardi A, Rizvi T, Souid A, Varga S.  Bioenergetics of murine lung infected with respiratory syncytial virus.  8th Annual Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium.  2012. 

Ackermann M, Grosz D, Gallup J, Van Geelen A, Varga S, Dersheid R.  Effects of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) in the perinatal lamb model of RSV.  8th Annual Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium.  2012. 

Knudson C, Hartwig S, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Eosinophils do not contribute to enhanced disease associated with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccination.  41st Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2012. 

Knudson C, Hartwig S, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Eosinophils do not contribute to enhanced disease associated with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccination.  8th Annual Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium.  2012. 

Weiss K, Christiaansen A, Fulton R, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Interleukin-10 limits RSV-induced disease severity by modulating the virus-specific T cell response.  Immunology 2012.  2012. 

Weiss K, Varga S.  Respiratory syncytial virus strains induce differential innate immune responses.  41st Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2012. 

Christiaansen A, Weiss K, Varga S.  Role of interleukin-15 in Treg expansion following RSV infection.  8th Annual Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium.  2012. 

Weiss K, Dudics S, Varga S.  The role of respiratory syncytial virus strain variation in the severity of virus-induced immunopathology.  8th Annual Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium.  2012. 

McDermott D, Olson M, Varga S.  Virus-specific CD62L-memory CD8 T cells are preferentially retained in the draining lymph node following systemic viral infection.  Immunology 2012.  2012. 

McDermott D, Varga S.  Quantifying antigen-specific CD4 T cells during a viral infection: CD4 T cell responses are larger than we think.  J Immunol.  2011 December 1. 187(11):5568-76.
[Link]

Weiss K, Christiaansen A, Fulton R, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Multiple CD4+ T cell subsets produce immunomodulatory IL-10 during respiratory syncytial virus infection.  J Immunol.  2011 September 15. 187(6):3145-54.
[Link]

McDermott D, Weiss K, Knudson C, Varga S.  Central role of dendritic cells in shaping the adaptive immune response during respiratory syncytial virus infection.  Future Virol.  2011 August. 6(8):963-973.
[Link]

Knudson C, Varga S.  Eosinophils do not contribute to respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease parameters.  40th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2011. 

Weiss K, Fulton R, Varga S.  Multiple CD4+ T cell subsets produce immunomodulatory IL-10 during acute respiratory syncytial virus infection.  Keystone Conference Symposia: Immunity in the Respiratory Tract: Challenges of the Lung Environment.  2011. 

Weiss K, Christiaansen A, Fulton R, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Multiple CD4+ T cell subsets produce interleukin-10 during RSV infection.  40th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2011. 

McDermott D, Varga S.  Quantifying antigen-specific CD4 T cells during a viral infection: CD4 T cell responses are larger than we think.  40th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2011. 

Christiaansen A, Varga S.  Role of pulmonary DC in modulating Treg expansion following RSV infection.  40th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2011. 

Boggiatto P, Varga S.  Role of regulatory T cells during chronic LCMV infection.  40th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2011. 

Fulton R, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells limit pulmonary immunopathology by modulating the CD8 T cell response during respiratory syncytial virus infection.  J Immunol.  2010 August 15. 185(4):2382-92.
[Link]

Groskreutz D, Babor E, Monick M, Varga S, Hunninghake G.  Respiratory syncytial virus limits alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation to maintain translation and viral replication.  J Biol Chem.  2010 July 30. 285(31):24023-31.
[Link]

Khanolkar A, Fulton R, Epping L, Pham N, Tifrea D, Varga S, Harty J.  T cell epitope specificity and pathogenesis of mouse hepatitis virus-1-induced disease in susceptible and resistant hosts.  J Immunol.  2010 July 15. 185(2):1132-41.
[Link]

Fulton R, Varga S.  Editorial: CD8 T cells cut back on calcium intake in the lungs.  J Leukoc Biol.  2010 June. 87(6):961-4.
[Link]

Weiss K, Fulton R, Varga S.  Determining the role of interleukin-10 during respiratory syncytial virus infection.  39th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2010. 

McDermott D, Varga S.  Establishing the specificity of the entire RSV-specific T cell response.  7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium.  2010. 

McDermott D, Varga S.  Examining the specificity of the entire RSV-specific T cell response.  39th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2010. 

Knudson C, McDermott D, Varga S.  Formalin-inactivation of respiratory syncytial virus alters native T cell epitopes.  39th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2010. 

Fulton R, Varga S.  Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells limit the magnitude of pulmonary immunopathology following acute respiratory syncytial virus infection.  Keystone Symposium: Viral Immunity.  2010. 

McDermott D, Varga S.  Quantifying the magnitude of antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses.  Immunology 2010.  2010. 

Fulton R, Varga S.  Effects of aging on the adaptive immune response to respiratory virus infections.  Aging Health.  2009 December 1. 5(6):775-87.
[Link]

Khanolkar A, Hartwig S, Haag B, Meyerholz D, Epping L, Haring J, Varga S, Harty J.  Protective and pathologic roles of the immune response to mouse hepatitis virus type 1: implications for severe acute respiratory syndrome.  J Virol.  2009 September. 83(18):9258-72.
[Link]

Khanolkar A, Hartwig S, Haag B, Meyerholz D, Harty J, Varga S.  Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency increases disease and mortality after mouse hepatitis virus type 1 infection of susceptible C3H mice.  J Virol.  2009 September. 83(17):8946-56.
[Link]

Groskreutz D, Monick M, Babor E, Nyunoya T, Varga S, Look D, Hunninghake G.  Cigarette smoke alters respiratory syncytial virus-induced apoptosis and replication.  Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol.  2009 August. 41(2):189-98.
[Link]

Olivier A, Gallup J, de Macedo M, Varga S, Ackermann M.  Human respiratory syncytial virus A2 strain replicates and induces innate immune responses by respiratory epithelia of neonatal lambs.  Int J Exp Pathol.  2009 August. 90(4):431-8.
[Link]

Meyerholz D, Rodgers J, Castilow E, Varga S.  Alcian Blue and Pyronine Y histochemical stains permit assessment of multiple parameters in pulmonary disease models.  Vet Pathol.  2009 March. 46(2):325-8.
[Link]

Olson M, Varga S.  Fas ligand is required for the development of respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease.  J Immunol.  2009 March 1. 182(5):3024-31.
[Link]

Meyerholz D, Griffin M, Castilow E, Varga S.  Comparison of histochemical methods for murine eosinophil detection in an RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model.  Toxicol Pathol.  2009 February. 37(2):249-55.
[Link]

McDermott D, Olson M, Varga S.  Draining lymph nodes exhibited altered recruitment of CD62L+ memory CD8 T cell.  38th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2009. 

Khanolkar A, Hartwig S, Pewe L, Varga S, Harty J.  Protective and pathologic roles of the immune response to mouse hepatitis virus-1: implications for severe acute respiratory syndrome.  Immunology 2009.  2009. 

Fulton R, Olson M, Varga S.  Regulation of cytokine production by virus-specific T cells in the lungs.  Keystone Symposium: Immunologic Memory and Host Defense.  2009. 

Groskreutz D, Monick M, Babor E, Varga S, Hunninghake G.  RSV Uses EGFR for viral replication.  Central Society for Clinical Research/Midwestern Section American Federation for Medical Research.  2009. 

Fulton R, Varga S.  The regulatory CD4 T cell response to respiratory syncytial virus.  38th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2009. 

Haag B, Hartwig S, Khanolkar A, Harty J, Varga S.  TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice exhibit enhanced disease and mortality following intranasal MHV-1 infection.  Immunology 2009.  2009. 

Varga S.  Fixing a failed vaccine.  Nat Med.  2009 January. 15(1):21-2.
[Link]

Olson M, Hartwig S, Varga S.  The number of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific memory CD8 T cells in the lung is critical for their ability to inhibit RSV vaccine-enhanced pulmonary eosinophilia.  J Immunol.  2008 December 1. 181(11):7958-68.
[Link]

Castilow E, Legge K, Varga S.  Cutting edge: Eosinophils do not contribute to respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease.  J Immunol.  2008 November 15. 181(10):6692-6.
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Olson M, Varga S.  Pulmonary immunity and immunopathology: lessons from respiratory syncytial virus.  Expert Rev Vaccines.  2008 October. 7(8):1239-55.
[Link]

Fulton R, Olson M, Varga S.  Regulation of cytokine production by virus-specific CD8 T cells in the lungs.  J Virol.  2008 August. 82(16):7799-811.
[Link]

Castilow E, Olson M, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  Differential role of gamma interferon in inhibiting pulmonary eosinophilia and exacerbating systemic disease in fusion protein-immunized mice undergoing challenge infection with respiratory syncytial virus.  J Virol.  2008 March. 82(5):2196-207.
[Link]

Wissinger E, Stevens W, Varga S, Braciale T.  Proliferative expansion and acquisition of effector activity by memory CD4+ T cells in the lungs following pulmonary virus infection.  J Immunol.  2008 March 1. 180(5):2957-66.
[Link]

Castilow E, Meyerholz D, Varga S.  IL-13 is required for eosinophil entry into the lung during respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease.  J Immunol.  2008 February 15. 180(4):2376-84.
[Link]

Meyerholz D, Rodgers J, Castilow E, Varga S.  Alcian blue and pyronine Y histochemical stains of paraffin embedded sections provide multi-parameter morphological assessment in experimental models of pulmonary disease.  Experimental Biology 2008.  2008. 

Groskreutz G, Monick M, Barton J, Babor E, Varga S, Look D, Hunninghake G.  Cigarette smoke extract converts RSV-induced apoptosis to necrosis, potentiating viral replication and local inflammation.  American Thoracic Society International Conference.  2008. 

Fulton R, Olson M, Varga S.  Inadequate stimulation by tissue APC dictates the effector functions of virus-specific CD8 T cells in the lung.  Keystone Symposium: Viral Immunity.  2008. 

Castilow E, Varga S.  Overcoming T cell-mediated immunopathology to achieve safe RSV vaccination.  Future Virol.  2008. 3(5):445-454.
[Link]

Olson M, Varga S.  Priming of CD8 T cells in the lymph nodes results in accelerated memory development after LCMV infection.  Keystone Symposium: Viral Immunity.  2008. 

Khanolkar A, Hartwig S, Pewe L, Varga S, Harty J.  Protective and pathologic roles of the immune response to mouse hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1): implications for severe acute respiratory syndrome.  37th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2008. 

Castilow E, Varga S.  Separation of pulmonary and systemic aspects of respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease.  Experimental Biology 2008.  2008. 

Haag B, Hartwig S, Khanolkar A, Harty J, Varga S.  TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice exhibit enhanced disease following intranasal MHV-1 infection.  37th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2008. 

Olson M, Varga S.  CD8 T cells inhibit respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine-enhanced disease.  J Immunol.  2007 October 15. 179(8):5415-24.
[Link]

Groskreutz D, Monick M, Yarovinsky T, Powers L, Quelle D, Varga S, Look D, Hunninghake G.  Respiratory syncytial virus decreases p53 protein to prolong survival of airway epithelial cells.  J Immunol.  2007 September 1. 179(5):2741-7.
[Link]

Monick M, Powers L, Hassan I, Groskreutz D, Yarovinsky T, Barrett C, Castilow E, Tifrea D, Varga S, Hunninghake G.  Respiratory syncytial virus synergizes with Th2 cytokines to induce optimal levels of TARC/CCL17.  J Immunol.  2007 August 1. 179(3):1648-58.
[Link]

Olson M, Varga S.  Accelerated memory CD8 T cell phenotype in the peritoneal cavity.  Keystone Symposium: Immunologic Memory.  2007. 

Olson M, Varga S.  Accelerated T memory development in the peritoneal cavity.  J Immunol.  2007. 178:Abstract No. 85.24.

Olson M, Varga S.  Differential ability of RSV F- and M2-specific CD8 T cells to modulate respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine-enhanced disease.  6th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium.  2007. 

Castilow E, Varga S.  Differential roles of STAT4 and STAT6 during respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease.  36th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2007. 

Fulton R, Varga S.  Functional impairment of CD8 T cells following acute virus infections.  J Immunol.  2007. 178:Abstract No. 43.32.

Castilow E, Varga S.  IL-13 is required for respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-induced pulmonary eosinophilia.  6th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium.  2007. 

Castilow E, Varga S.  Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced pulmonary eosinophilia requires IL-13, IL-4Rα, and STAT6.  J Immunol.  2007. 178:Abstract No. 96.6.

Castilow E, Olson M, Varga S.  Understanding respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine-enhanced disease.  Immunol Res.  2007. 39(1-3):225-39.
[Link]

Ramaswamy M, Shi L, Varga S, Barik S, Behlke M, LOOK D.  Respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural protein 2 specifically inhibits type I interferon signal transduction.  Virology.  2006 January 20. 344(2):328-39.
[Link]

Olson M, Varga S.  CD8 T cell inhibition of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease.  35th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2006. 

Olson M, Varga S.  CD8 T cell modulation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine-enhanced disease.  J Immunol.  2006. 176:S117, Abstract No. 59.6.

Fulton R, Varga S.  Cytokine impairment of pulmonary CD8 T cells following respiratory viral infections.  35th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2006. 

Castilow E, Olson M, Varga S.  IFN-γ modulates RSV vaccine-enhanced disease mediated by RSV F protein-specific CD4 T cells.  J Immunol.  2006. 176:S89, Abstract No. 55.27.

Castilow E, Varga S.  IL-13 is required for respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced pulmonary eosinophilia.  35th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2006. 

Haring J, Badovinac V, Olson M, Varga S, Harty J.  In vivo generation of pathogen-specific Th1 cells in the absence of the IFN-gamma receptor.  J Immunol.  2005 September 1. 175(5):3117-22.
[Link]

Olson M, Varga S.  CD8 T cell inhibition of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease.  34th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2005. 

Olson M, Varga S.  CD8 T cell inhibition of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease.  FASEB J.  2005. 19(4):A396, Abstract No. 261.20.

Olson M, Varga S.  CD8 T cell inhibition of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease.  RSV Symposium 2005.  2005. 

Castilow E, Varga S.  Identification of a CD4 T cell epitope within the fusion protein of RSV.  34th Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2005. 

Fischer A, Wohlford-Lenane C, Sinn P, Jia H, Varga S, Davidson B, McCray P.  RNAi Applications for respiratory epithelia: delivery and efficacy.  Molecular Therapy.  2005. 

Ramaswamy M, Shi L, Barik S, Varga S, Hunninghake G, Look D.  RSV Nonstructural Protein NS2 inhibits Stat2 expression and type 1 interferon-dependent gene expression.  Proc Am Thor Soc.  2005. 2:A261.

Ramaswamy M, Shi L, Varga S, Barik S, Hunninghake G, Look D.  RSV nonstructural Protein NS2 inhibits type 1 interferon-dependent gene expression by decreasing STAT2 levels.  RSV Symposium 2005.  2005. 

Varga S.  The role of IL-13 in RSV vaccine-enhanced disease induced by immunization with the attachment (G) protein.  FASEB J.  2005. 19(4):A408, Abstract No. 261.77.

Johnson T, Varga S, Braciale T, Graham B.  Vβ14+ T cells mediate the vaccine-enhanced disease induced by immunization with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G glycoprotein but not with formalin-inactivated RSV.  J Virol.  2004 August. 78(16):8753-60.
[Link]

Olson M, Varga S.  CD8 T cell modulation of RSV vaccine-enhanced disease.  33rd Annual Autumn Immunology Conference.  2004. 

Wissinger E, Varga S, Braciale T.  Migration, proliferation, and differentiation of memory G-specific CD4+ T cells following experimental murine RSV infection.  12th International Congress of Immunology.  2004. 

Wissinger E, Varga S, Braciale T.  Recruitment and proliferation of effector memory CD4+ T cells following experimental murine RSV infection.  FASEB J.  2004. 18(5):A804, Abstract No. 554.21.

Wissinger E, Varga S, Braciale T.  Lung infiltration and subsequent proliferation of RSV G-specific memory CD4+ T cells following experimental murine RSV infection.  RSV Symposium 2003.  2003. 

Wissinger E, Varga S, Braciale T.  Proliferation and effector activity of memory CD4+ T cells in the lung following experimental murine RSV infection.  FASEB J.  2003. 17(7):C163, Abstract No. 80.8.

Johnson T, Varga S, Braciale T, Graham B.  Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G-induced vaccine enhanced disease, but not FI-RSV-induced disease, is mediated by Vβ14+ T cells.  FASEB J.  2003. 17(7):C18, Abstract No. 31.14.

Varga S, Braciale T.  RSV-induced immunopathology: dynamic interplay between the virus and host immune response.  Virology.  2002 April 10. 295(2):203-7.
[Link]

Varga S, Beckman N, Chu M, Braciale T.  Sensitive detection and quantitation of mouse eosinophils in tissues using an enzymatic eosinophil peroxidase assay: its use to rapidly measure pulmonary eosinophilia during experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection of mice.  J Immunol Methods.  2002 April 1. 262(1-2):111-20.
[Link]

Varga S, Braciale T.  The role of IL-4 and IL-13 in RSV vaccine-enhanced disease induced by immunization with the attachment (G) protein.  FASEB J.  2002. 16(5):A1040, Abstract No. 758.5.

Varga S, Braciale T.  The role of IL-4R in RSV vaccine-enhanced disease induced by immunization with the attachment (G) protein.  ASM Conference on Immunity to Bacterial, Viral, and Protozoal Pathogens.  2002. 

Varga S, Wang X, Welsh R, Braciale T.  Immunopathology in RSV infection is mediated by a discrete oligoclonal subset of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells.  Immunity.  2001 October. 15(4):637-46.
[Link]

Varga S, Selin L, Welsh R.  Independent regulation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific T cell memory pools: relative stability of CD4 memory under conditions of CD8 memory T cell loss.  J Immunol.  2001 February 1. 166(3):1554-61.
[Link]

Wassinger E, Varga S, Braciale T.  Recruitment of effector CD4 T cells to the lungs during experimental murine RSV infection.  FASEB J.  2001. 15(4):A682, Abstract No. 529.20.

Wissinger E, Varga S, Braciale T.  Recruitment of effector CD4 T cells to the lungs during experimental murine RSV infection.  Keystone Symposium: Molecular Aspects of Viral Immunity.  2001. 

Varga S, Wang X, Welsh R, Braciale T.  RSV G-enhanced immunopathology is mediated by a discrete subset of CD4+ T cells with limited TCR diversity.  RSV After 45 Years.  2001. 

Braciale T, Varga S.  T lymphocyte effector activity.  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  2001. 

Varga S, Braciale T.  The role of Vβ14+ CD4 T cells in mediating respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced lung disease.  Keystone Symposium: Molecular Aspects of Viral Immunity.  2001. 

Varga S, Braciale T.  The role of Vβ14+ CD4 T cells in the development of immune-mediated pathology during experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection.  FASEB J.  2001. 15(4):A304, Abstract No. 266.5.

Varga S, Wissinger E, Braciale T.  The attachment (G) glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus contains a single immunodominant epitope that elicits both Th1 and Th2 CD4+ T cell responses.  J Immunol.  2000 December 1. 165(11):6487-95.
[Link]

Varga S, Welsh R.  High frequency of virus-specific interleukin-2-producing CD4+ T cells and Th1 dominance during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection.  J Virol.  2000 May. 74(9):4429-32.
[Link]

Varga S, Wissinger E, Braciale T.  CD4 T cells directed to the RSV attachment glycoprotein recognize a single dominant epitope and utilize a highly restricted Vβ repertoire.  FASEB J.  2000. 14(6):A1039, Abstract No. 93.16.

Selin L, Lin M, Varga S, Welsh R.  CD8 memory to viruses and the T cell network.  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  2000. 

Selin L, Lin M, Kraemer K, Pardoll D, Schneck J, Varga S, Santolucito P, Pinto A, Welsh R.  Attrition of T cell memory: selective loss of LCMV epitope-specific memory CD8 T cells following infections with heterologous viruses.  Immunity.  1999 December. 11(6):733-42.
[Link]

Varga S, Selin L, Welsh R.  Resistance of virus-specific CD4 T cell precursors to deletion by heterologous viruses.  FASEB J.  1999. 13(5):A978, Abstract No. 712.5.

Selin L, Varga S, Wong I, Welsh R.  Protective heterologous antiviral immunity and enhanced immunopathogenesis mediated by memory T cell populations.  J Exp Med.  1998 November 2. 188(9):1705-15.
[Link]

Varga S, Welsh R.  Detection of a high frequency of virus-specific CD4+ T cells during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.  J Immunol.  1998 October 1. 161(7):3215-8.
[Link]

Varga S, Welsh R.  Stability of virus-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies from acute infection into long term memory.  J Immunol.  1998 July 1. 161(1):367-74.
[Link]

Varga S, Welsh R.  Remarkable stability of virus-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies from acute infection into long term memory.  FASEB J.  1998. 12(4):A614, Abstract No. 3566.

Varga S, Welsh R.  Stability of virus-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies from acute infection into long term memory.  Keystone Symposium: Molecular Aspects of Viral Immunity.  1998. 

Welsh R, Lin M, Lohman B, Varga S, Zarozinski C, Selin L.  Alpha beta and gamma delta T-cell networks and their roles in natural resistance to viral infections.  Immunol Rev.  1997 October. 159:79-93.
[Link]

Varga S, Welsh R.  Stability of virus-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies from acute infection into long term memory.  XXIII New England Immunology Conference Program and Poster Session Abstracts.  1997. 

Welsh R, Tay C, Varga S, O'Donnell C, Vergilis K, Selin L.  Lymphocyte-dependent 'natural' immunity to virus infections mediated by both natural killer cells and memory T cells.  Semin Virol.  1996 April. 7(2):95-102.

Varga S, Welsh R.  The CD45RB-associated epitope defined by monoclonal antibody CZ-1 is an activation and memory marker for mouse CD4 T cells.  Cell Immunol.  1996 January 10. 167(1):56-62.
[Link]

Varga S, Selin L, Welsh R.  Enhanced T cell cytokine Production in immune mice challenged with heterologous viruses.  FASEB J.  1996. 10(6):A1318, Abstract No. 1836.

Varga S, Vergilis K, Welsh R, Selin L.  Heterologous T cell-mediated immunity to viral infections.  XXI New England Immunology Conference Program and Poster Session Abstracts.  1995. 

Date Last Modified: 06/07/2014 - 21:56:23