Microbiology

Patrick M. Schlievert, PhD

Portrait

Chair and Department Executive Officer
Professor of Microbiology
Professor of Internal Medicine

Contact Information

Office: 3-403B Bowen Science Building
51 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52242
Office Phone: 319-335-7807

Lab: 3-401 Bowen Science Building
51 Newton Rd
Iowa City, IA 52242
Phone: 319-335-7817

Email: patrick-schlievert@uiowa.edu
Web: Des Moines Register January 6, 2014

Education

BA, General Science (Geology), University of Iowa
PhD, Microbiology, University of Iowa

Post Doctoral, University of Minnesota

Education/Training Program Affiliations

Biosciences Graduate Program
Department of Microbiology Graduate Program
Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology
Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Translational Biomedicine
Medical Scientist Training Program

Research Summary

Research in my laboratory studies superantigen and cytolysin exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci, as immune system modulators, evaluating their roles in serious human illnesses, including pneumonia and infectious endocarditis. Included in the larger family of superantigens are toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), the major cause of TSS; staphylococcal enterotoxins, causes of food poisoning and TSS; and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, causes of scarlet fever and a TSS-like illness. Additionally, my laboratory identifies novel strategies to prevent and manage serious human infectious diseases. Specific areas of ongoing research include: 1) elucidation of the mechanisms of cytolysin and superantigen subversion of the immune system at mucosal surfaces; 2) structure-function studies of novel superantigens; 3) development of novel therapeutic agents to prevent infections and treat serious human diseases; 4) characterization of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and enterococcal factors required for development of TSS, pneumonia, infectious endocarditis, and selected other illnesses; 5) characterization of the pathogenesis of novel human illnesses associated with gram-positive bacteria.

Center, Program and Institute Affiliations

Center for Immunology and Immune-based Diseases
NIH Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Unit

All Publications

Salgado-Pabón W, Herrera A, Vu B, Stach C, Merriman J, Spaulding A, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcus aureus β-toxin Production is Common in Strains with the β-toxin Gene Inactivated by Bacteriophage.  J Infect Dis.  2014 September 1. 210(5):784-92.
[Link]

Salgado-Pabón W, Schlievert P.  Models matter: the search for an effective Staphylococcus aureus vaccine.  Nat Rev Microbiol.  2014 August. 12(8):858-91.
[Link]

Stach C, Herrera A, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal superantigens interact with multiple host receptors to cause serious diseases.  Immunol Res.  2014 August. 59(1-3):177-81.
[Link]

Spaulding A, Salgado-Pabón W, Merriman J, Stach C, Ji Y, Gillman A, Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.  J Infect Dis.  2014 June 15. 209(12):1955-62.
[Link]

van Sorge N, Cole J, Kuipers K, Henningham A, Aziz R, Kasirer-Friede A, Lin L, Berends E, Davies M, Dougan G, Zhang F, Dahesh S, Shaw L, Gin J, Cunningham M, Merriman J, Hütter J, Lepenies B, Rooijakkers S, Malley R, Walker M, Shattil S, Schlievert P, Choudhury B, Nizet V.  The classical lancefield antigen of group a streptococcus is a virulence determinant with implications for vaccine design.  Cell Host Microbe.  2014 June 11. 15(6):729-40.
[Link]

Merriman J, Schlievert P.  Are we close to a vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus?.  Future Microbiol.  2014 June. 9(6):717-20.
[Link]

Merriman J, Nemeth K, Schlievert P.  Novel antimicrobial peptides that inhibit gram positive bacterial exotoxin synthesis.  PLoS One.  2014 April 18. 9(4):e95661.
[Link]

Salgado-Pabón W, Case-Cook L, Schlievert P.  Molecular analysis of staphylococcal superantigens.  Methods Mol Biol.  2014. 1085:169-85.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Salgado-Pabón W, Herrera A, Vu B, Stach C, Merriman J.  Reply to Dupieux et al..  J Infect Dis.  2014. Epub ahead of print.
[Link]

Vu B, Stach C, Salgado-Pabón W, Diekema D, Gardner S, Schlievert P.  Superantigens of Staphylococcus aureus from Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers.  J Infect Dis.  2014. Epub ahead of print.
[Link]

Walker J, Crosby H, Spaulding A, Salgado-Pabón W, Malone C, Rosenthal C, Schlievert P, Boyd J, Horswill A.  The Staphylococcus aureus ArlRS two-component system is a novel regulator of agglutination and pathogenesis.  PLoS Pathog.  2013 December. 9(12):e1003819.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Merriman J, Salgado-Pabón W, Mueller E, Spaulding A, Vu B, Chuang-Smith O, Kohler P, Kirby J.  Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother.  2013 November. 57(11):5432-7.
[Link]

Vu B, Gourronc F, Bernlohr D, Schlievert P, Klingelhutz A.  Staphylococcal superantigens stimulate immortalized human adipocytes to produce chemokines.  PLoS One.  2013 October 30. 8(10):e77988.
[Link]

Salgado-Pabón W, Breshears L, Spaulding A, Merriman J, Stach C, Horswill A, Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Superantigens are critical for Staphylococcus aureus Infective endocarditis, sepsis, and acute kidney injury.  MBio.  2013 August 20. 4(4):pii: e00494-13.
[Link]

Spaulding A, Salgado-Pabón W, Kohler P, Horswill A, Leung D, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen exotoxins.  Clin Microbiol Rev.  2013 July. 26(3):422-47.
[Link]

Frank K, Guiton P, Barnes A, Manias D, Chuang-Smith O, Kohler P, Spaulding A, Hultgren S, Schlievert P, Dunny G.  AhrC and Eep Are Biofilm Infection-Associated Virulence Factors in Enterococcus faecalis.  Infect Immun.  2013 May. 81(5):1696-708.
[Link]

Brosnahan A, Merriman J, Salgado-Pabón W, Ford B, Schlievert P.  Enterococcus faecalis inhibits superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-induced interleukin-8 from human vaginal epithelial cells through tetramic acids.  PLoS One.  2013 April 22. 8(4):e61255.
[Link]

Chen L, Chavda K, Solanki M, Mediavilla J, Mathema B, Schlievert P, Kreiswirth B.  Genetic Variation among Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Encoding Bacteriophages in Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 30 Strains.  J Clin Microbiol.  2013 March. 51(3):914-9.
[Link]

Mattis D, Spaulding A, Chuang-Smith O, Sundberg E, Schlievert P, Kranz D.  Engineering a soluble high-affinity receptor domain that neutralizes staphylococcal enterotoxin C in rabbit models of disease.  Protein Eng Des Sel.  2013 February. 26(2):133-42.
[Link]

Al Akhrass F, Abdallah L, Berger S, Hanna R, Reynolds N, Thompson S, Hallit R, Schlievert P.  Streptococcus agalactiae toxic shock-like syndrome: two case reports and review of the literature.  Medicine (Baltimore).  2013 January. 92(1):10-4.
[Link]

Pereira N, Edlind T, Schlievert P, Nyirjesy P.  Vaginal toxic shock reaction triggering desquamative inflammatory vaginitis.  J Low Genit Tract Dis.  2013 January. 17(1):88-91.
[Link]

Breshears L, Schlievert P, Peterson M.  A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling drive the epithelial response to Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).  J Biol Chem.  2012 September 21. 287(39):32578-87.
[Link]

Bin L, Kim B, Brauweiler A, Goleva E, Streib J, Ji Y, Schlievert P, Leung D.  Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin modulates skin host response to viral infection.  J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2012 September. 130(3):683-91.
[Link]

Spaulding A, Lin Y, Merriman J, Brosnahan A, Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Immunity to Staphylococcus aureus secreted proteins protects rabbits from serious illnesses.  Vaccine.  2012 July 20. 30(34):5099-109.
[Link]

Frank K, Barnes A, Grindle S, Manias D, Schlievert P, Dunny G.  Use of recombinase-based in vivo expression technology to characterize Enterococcus faecalis gene expression during infection identifies in vivo-expressed antisense RNAs and implicates the protease Eep in pathogenesis.  Infect Immun.  2012 February. 80(2):539-49.
[Link]

Anderson M, Lin Y, Gillman A, Parks P, Schlievert P, Peterson M.  Alpha-Toxin Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Mucosal Biofilm Formation.  Front Cell Infect Microbiol.  2012. 2:64.
[Link]

Spaulding A, Satterwhite E, Lin Y, Chuang-Smith O, Frank K, Merriman J, Schaefers M, Yarwood J, Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus strains for ability to cause infective endocarditis and lethal sepsis in rabbits.  Front Cell Infect Microbiol.  2012. 2:18.
[Link]

Fan J, Zhang Y, Chuang-Smith O, Frank K, Guenther B, Kern M, Schlievert P, Herzberg M.  Ecto-5'-nucleotidase: a candidate virulence factor in Streptococcus sanguinis experimental endocarditis.  PLoS One.  2012. 7(6):e38059.
[Link]

Schaefers M, Breshears L, Anderson M, Lin Y, Grill A, Panyam J, Southern P, Schlievert P, Peterson M.  Epithelial proinflammatory response and curcumin-mediated protection from staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.  PLoS One.  2012. 7(3):e32813.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Peterson M.  Glycerol monolaurate antibacterial activity in broth and biofilm cultures.  PLoS One.  2012. 7(7):e40350.
[Link]

Kohler P, Greenwood S, Nookala S, Kotb M, Kranz D, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcus aureus isolates encode variant staphylococcal enterotoxin B proteins that are diverse in superantigenicity and lethality.  PLoS One.  2012. 7(7):e41157.
[Link]

Brosnahan A, Schlievert P.  Gram-positive bacterial superantigen outside-in signaling causes toxic shock syndrome.  FEBS J.  2011 December. 278(23):4649-67.
[Link]

Wilson G, Seo K, Cartwright R, Connelley T, Chuang-Smith O, Merriman J, Guinane C, Park J, Bohach G, Schlievert P, Morrison W, Fitzgerald J.  A novel core genome-encoded superantigen contributes to lethality of community-associated MRSA necrotizing pneumonia.  PLoS Pathog.  2011 October. 7(10):e1002271.
[Link]

Tyner H, Schlievert P, Baddour L.  Beta-hemolytic streptococcal erythroderma syndrome: a clinical and pathogenic analysis.  Am J Med Sci.  2011 October. 342(4):343-4.
[Link]

Lin Y, Anderson M, Kohler P, Strandberg K, Olson M, Horswill A, Schlievert P, Peterson M.  Proinflammatory exoprotein characterization of toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus.  Biochemistry.  2011 August 23. 50(33):7157-67.
[Link]

Goertz C, Frasca S, Bohach G, Cowan D, Buck J, French R, De Guise S, Maratea J, Hinckley L, Ewalt D, Schlievert P, Karst S, Deobald C, St Aubin D, Dunn J.  Brucella sp. vertebral osteomyelitis with intercurrent fatal Staphylococcus aureus toxigenic enteritis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  J Vet Diagn Invest.  2011 July. 23(4):845-51.
[Link]

DeVries A, Lesher L, Schlievert P, Rogers T, Villaume L, Danila R, Lynfield R.  Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome 2000-2006: epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characteristics.  PLoS One.  2011. 6(8):e22997.
[Link]

Malachowa N, Kohler P, Schlievert P, Chuang O, Dunny G, Kobayashi S, Miedzobrodzki J, Bohach G, Seo K.  Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus surface virulence factor that promotes resistance to oxidative killing and infectious endocarditis.  Infect Immun.  2011 January. 79(1):342-52.
[Link]

Broccardo C, Mahaffey S, Schwarz J, Wruck L, David G, Schlievert P, Reisdorph N, Leung D.  Comparative proteomic profiling of patients with atopic dermatitis based on history of eczema herpeticum infection and Staphylococcus aureus colonization.  J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2011 January. 127(1):186-93, 193.e1-11.
[Link]

Strandberg K, Rotschafer J, Vetter S, Buonpane R, Kranz D, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal superantigens cause lethal pulmonary disease in rabbits.  J Infect Dis.  2010 December 1. 202(11):1690-7.
[Link]

Wang N, Mattis D, Sundberg E, Schlievert P, Kranz D.  A single, engineered protein therapeutic agent neutralizes exotoxins from both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.  Clin Vaccine Immunol.  2010 November. 17(11):1781-9.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Chuang-Smith O, Peterson M, Cook L, Dunny G.  Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis severity in rabbits is reduced by IgG Fabs interfering with aggregation substance.  PLoS One.  2010 October 4. 5(10):pi: e13194.
[Link]

Huseby M, Kruse A, Digre J, Kohler P, Vocke J, Mann E, Bayles K, Bohach G, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D, Earhart C.  Beta toxin catalyzes formation of nucleoprotein matrix in staphylococcal biofilms.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  2010 August 10. 107(32):14407-12.
[Link]

Lin Z, Kotler D, Schlievert P, Sordillo E.  Staphylococcal enterocolitis: forgotten but not gone?.  Dig Dis Sci.  2010 May. 55(5):1200-7.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Nemeth K, Davis C, Peterson M, Jones B.  Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins are present in vivo in tampons.  Clin Vaccine Immunol.  2010 May. 17(5):722-7.
[Link]

Strandberg K, Peterson M, Lin Y, Pack M, Chase D, Schlievert P.  Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo but not Lactobacillus.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother.  2010 February. 54(2):597-601.
[Link]

Bernstein J, Allen C, Rich G, Dryja D, Bina P, Reiser R, Schlievert P, Ballow D, Cavanaugh D, Wilding G.  Further observations of the role of Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins and IgE in the pathogenesis of massive nasal polyposis.  Liber Amicorum.  2010. 

Schlievert P, Strandberg K, Lin Y, Peterson M, Leung D.  Secreted virulence factor comparison between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and its relevance to atopic dermatitis.  J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2010 January. 125(1):39-49.
[Link]

John C, Niermann M, Sharon B, Peterson M, Kranz D, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome erythroderma is associated with superantigenicity and hypersensitivity.  Clin Infect Dis.  2009 December 15. 49(12):1893-6.
[Link]

Strandberg K, Peterson M, Schaefers M, Case L, Pack M, Chase D, Schlievert P.  Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production and in vaginal interleukin 8 levels due to glycerol monolaurate in tampons.  Clin Infect Dis.  2009 December 1. 49(11):1711-7.
[Link]

Lin Y, Schlievert P, Anderson M, Fair C, Schaefers M, Muthyala R, Peterson M.  Glycerol monolaurate and dodecylglycerol effects on Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in vitro and in vivo.  PLoS One.  2009 October 19. 4(10):e7499.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Cytolysins, superantigens, and pneumonia due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  J Infect Dis.  2009 September 1. 200(5):676-8.
[Link]

Leung D, Hanifin J, Pariser D, Barber K, Langley R, Schlievert P, Abrams B, Hultsch T.  Effects of pimecrolimus cream 1% in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis who demonstrate a clinical insensitivity to topical corticosteroids: a randomized, multicentre vehicle-controlled trial.  Br J Dermatol.  2009 August. 161(2):435-43.
[Link]

Li Q, Estes J, Schlievert P, Duan L, Brosnahan A, Southern P, Reilly C, Peterson M, Schultz-Darken N, Brunner K, Nephew K, Pambuccian S, Lifson J, Carlis J, Haase A.  Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission.  Nature.  2009 April 23. 458(7241):1034-8.
[Link]

Assimacopoulos A, Strandberg K, Rotschafer J, Schlievert P.  Extreme pyrexia and rapid death due to Staphylococcus aureus infection: analysis of 2 cases.  Clin Infect Dis.  2009 March 1. 48(5):612-4.
[Link]

Brosnahan A, Mantz M, Squier C, Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Cytolysins augment superantigen penetration of stratified mucosa.  J Immunol.  2009 February 15. 182(4):2364-73.
[Link]

Schlievert P, McCormick J, Bohach G, Ohlendorf D.  Exotoxins.  Wiley-Blackwell, New York.  2009. 

Chuang O, Schlievert P, Wells C, Manias D, Tripp T, Dunny G.  Multiple functional domains of Enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance Asc10 contribute to endocarditis virulence.  Infect Immun.  2009 January. 77(1):539-48.
[Link]

Brosnahan A, Schaefers M, Amundson W, Mantz M, Squier C, Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Novel toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 amino acids required for biological activity.  Biochemistry.  2008 December 9. 47(49):12995-3003.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Strandberg K, Brosnahan A, Peterson M, Pambuccian S, Nephew K, Brunner K, Schultz-Darken N, Haase A.  Glycerol monolaurate does not alter rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) vaginal lactobacilli and is safe for chronic use.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother.  2008 December. 52(12):4448-54.
[Link]

Yang X, Buonpane R, Moza B, Rahman A, Wang N, Schlievert P, McCormick J, Sundberg E, Kranz D.  Neutralization of multiple staphylococcal superantigens by a single-chain protein consisting of affinity-matured, variable domain repeats.  J Infect Dis.  2008 August 1. 198(3):344-8.
[Link]

Weivoda S, Andersen J, Skogen A, Schlievert P, Fontana D, Schacker T, Tuite P, Dubinsky J, Jemmerson R.  ELISA for human serum leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 employing cytochrome c as the capturing ligand.  J Immunol Methods.  2008 July 20. 336(1):22-9.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Case L, Strandberg K, Abrams B, Leung D.  Superantigen profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with steroid-resistant atopic dermatitis.  Clin Infect Dis.  2008 May 15. 46(10):1562-7.
[Link]

Squier C, Mantz M, Schlievert P, Davis C.  Porcine vagina ex vivo as a model for studying permeability and pathogenesis in mucosa.  J Pharm Sci.  2008 January. 97(1):9-21.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Case L, Nemeth K, Davis C, Sun Y, Qin W, Wang F, Brosnahan A, Mleziva J, Peterson M, Jones B.  Alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin inhibit production of Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins.  Biochemistry.  2007 December 18. 46(50):14349-58.
[Link]

Huseby M, Shi K, Brown C, Digre J, Mengistu F, Seo K, Bohach G, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D, Earhart C.  Structure and biological activities of beta toxin from Staphylococcus aureus.  J Bacteriol.  2007 December. 189(23):8719-26.
[Link]

Pragman A, Herron-Olson L, Case L, Vetter S, Henke E, Kapur V, Schlievert P.  Sequence analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus srrAB loci reveals that truncation of srrA affects growth and virulence factor expression.  J Bacteriol.  2007 October. 189(20):7515-9.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Chitosan malate inhibits growth and exotoxin production of toxic shock syndrome-inducing Staphylococcus aureus strains and group A streptococci.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother.  2007 September. 51(9):3056-62.
[Link]

Ulrich M, Bastian M, Cramton S, Ziegler K, Pragman A, Bragonzi A, Memmi G, Wolz C, Schlievert P, Cheung A, Döring G.  The staphylococcal respiratory response regulator SrrAB induces ica gene transcription and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin expression, protecting Staphylococcus aureus from neutrophil killing under anaerobic growth conditions.  Mol Microbiol.  2007 September. 65(5):1276-87.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Case L, Strandberg K, Tripp T, Lin Y, Peterson M.  Vaginal Staphylococcus aureus superantigen profile shift from 1980 and 1981 to 2003, 2004, and 2005.  J Clin Microbiol.  2007 August. 45(8):2704-7.
[Link]

Vetter S, Schlievert P.  The two-component system Bacillus respiratory response A and B (BrrA-BrrB) is a virulence factor regulator in Bacillus anthracis.  Biochemistry.  2007 June 26. 46(25):7343-52.
[Link]

Kotler D, Sandkovsky U, Schlievert P, Sordillo E.  Toxic shock-like syndrome associated with staphylococcal enterocolitis in an HIV-infected man.  Clin Infect Dis.  2007 June 15. 44(12):e121-3.
[Link]

Buonpane R, Churchill H, Moza B, Sundberg E, Peterson M, Schlievert P, Kranz D.  Neutralization of staphylococcal enterotoxin B by soluble, high-affinity receptor antagonists.  Nat Med.  2007 June. 13(6):725-9.
[Link]

Brouillard J, Günther S, Varma A, Gryski I, Herfst C, Rahman A, Leung D, Schlievert P, Madrenas J, Sundberg E, McCormick J.  Crystal structure of the streptococcal superantigen SpeI and functional role of a novel loop domain in T cell activation by group V superantigens.  J Mol Biol.  2007 April 6. 367(4):925-34.
[Link]

Pragman A, Ji Y, Schlievert P.  Repression of Staphylococcus aureus SrrAB using inducible antisense srrA alters growth and virulence factor transcript levels.  Biochemistry.  2007 January 9. 46(1):314-21.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Case L.  Molecular analysis of staphylococcal superantigens.  Methods Mol Biol.  2007. 391:113-26.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bohach G.  Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens: an update.  ASM Press, Washington, DC.  2007. 

Assimacopoulos A, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock and Kawasaki syndrome.  Mosby, St Louis.  2007. 

Phillips J, Tripp T, Regelmann W, Schlievert P, Wangensteen O.  Staphylococcal alpha-toxin causes increased tracheal epithelial permeability.  Pediatr Pulmonol.  2006 December. 41(12):1146-52.
[Link]

Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the effects of Gram-positive select agents on eukaryotic cells.  Biochemistry.  2006 February 21. 45(7):2387-97.
[Link]

Cone L, Stone R, Schlievert P, Sneider R, Rubin A, Jesser K, Renker S.  An early favorable outcome of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may require a combination of antimicrobial and intravenous gamma globulin therapy together with activated protein C.  Scand J Infect Dis.  2006. 38(11-12):960-3.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Peterson M.  Staphylococci: Abscesses and Other Diseases.  Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.  2006. 

McCormick J, Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Toxins and superantigens of group A streptococci.  ASM Press, Washington, DC.  2006. 

Hill D, Brunner M, Schmitz D, Davis C, Flood J, Schlievert P, Wang-Weigand S, Osborn T.  In vivo assessment of human vaginal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels during and post menses.  J Appl Physiol.  2005 October. 99(4):1582-91.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome: still a problem.  Med J Aust.  2005 June 20. 182(12):651-2.
[Link]

Vetter S, Schlievert P.  Glycerol monolaurate inhibits virulence factor production in Bacillus anthracis.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother.  2005 April. 49(4):1302-5.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Tripp T, Peterson M.  Reemergence of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United States since 2000.  J Clin Microbiol.  2005 April. 43(4):2032-3.
[Link]

Peterson M, Ault K, Kremer M, Klingelhutz A, Davis C, Squier C, Schlievert P.  The innate immune system is activated by stimulation of vaginal epithelial cells with Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.  Infect Immun.  2005 April. 73(4):2164-74.
[Link]

Kravitz G, Dries D, Peterson M, Schlievert P.  Purpura fulminans due to Staphylococcus aureus.  Clin Infect Dis.  2005 April 1. 40(7):941-7.
[Link]

Perkins S, Han D, Burke J, Schlievert P, Wirostko W, Tarasewicz D, Skumatz C.  Intravitreally injected human immunoglobulin attenuates the effects of Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatant in a rabbit model of toxin-mediated endophthalmitis.  Arch Ophthalmol.  2004 October. 122(10):1499-506.
[Link]

Pragman A, Schlievert P.  Virulence regulation in Staphylococcus aureus: the need for in vivo analysis of virulence factor regulation.  FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol.  2004 October 1. 42(2):147-54.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Tripp T, Peterson M.  Reemergence of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, during the 2000-2003 surveillance period.  J Clin Microbiol.  2004 June. 42(6):2875-6.
[Link]

Kim S, Grant J, Kim S, Swanson T, Bernstein G, Jaszcz W, Williams K, Schlievert P.  A possible association of recurrent streptococcal infections and acute onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci.  2004 Summer. 16(3):252-60.
[Link]

Flood J, Tripp T, Davis C, Hill D, Schlievert P.  A toroid model for in vitro investigations of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 production.  J Microbiol Methods.  2004 May. 57(2):283-8.
[Link]

Waters C, Hirt H, McCormick J, Schlievert P, Wells C, Dunny G.  An amino-terminal domain of Enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance is required for aggregation, bacterial internalization by epithelial cells and binding to lipoteichoic acid.  Mol Microbiol.  2004 May. 52(4):1159-71.
[Link]

Pragman A, Yarwood J, Tripp T, Schlievert P.  Characterization of virulence factor regulation by SrrAB, a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus.  J Bacteriol.  2004 April. 186(8):2430-8.
[Link]

Dahl M, Ross A, Schlievert P.  Temperature regulates bacterial protein production: possible role in rosacea.  J Am Acad Dermatol.  2004 February. 50(2):266-72.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Assimacopoulos A.  Toxic shock syndrome.  W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.  2004. 

Davis C, Kremer M, Schlievert P, Squier C.  Penetration of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 across porcine vaginal mucosa ex vivo: permeability characteristics, toxin distribution, and tissue damage.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  2003 December. 189(6):1785-91.
[Link]

Yarwood J, Schlievert P.  Quorum sensing in Staphylococcus infections.  J Clin Invest.  2003 December. 112(11):1620-5.
[Link]

Saiman L, O'Keefe M, Graham 3rd P, Wu F, Saïd-Salim B, Kreiswirth B, LaSala A, Schlievert P, Della-Latta P.  Hospital transmission of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among postpartum women.  Clin Infect Dis.  2003 November 15. 37(10):1313-9.
[Link]

Dinges M, Gregerson D, Tripp T, McCormick J, Schlievert P.  Effects of total body irradiation and cyclosporin a on the lethality of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in a rabbit model of toxic shock syndrome.  J Infect Dis.  2003 October 15. 188(8):1142-5.
[Link]

Sundberg E, Andersen P, Schlievert P, Karjalainen K, Mariuzza R.  Structural, energetic, and functional analysis of a protein-protein interface at distinct stages of affinity maturation.  Structure.  2003 September. 11(9):1151-61.
[Link]

McCormick J, Tripp T, Llera A, Sundberg E, Dinges M, Mariuzza R, Schlievert P.  Functional analysis of the TCR binding domain of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 predicts further diversity in MHC class II/superantigen/TCR ternary complexes.  J Immunol.  2003 August 1. 171(3):1385-92.
[Link]

Langley J, Soder C, Schlievert P, Murray S.  Case report: Molluscum contagiosum. Toxic shock syndrome following cantharidin treatment.  Can Fam Physician.  2003 July. 49:887-9.
[Link]

Travers J, Leung D, Johnson C, Schlievert P, Marques M, Cosgrove J, Clay K.  Augmentation of staphylococcal alpha-toxin signaling by the epidermal platelet-activating factor receptor.  J Invest Dermatol.  2003 May. 120(5):789-94.
[Link]

Orwin P, Fitzgerald J, Leung D, Gutierrez J, Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin L.  Infect Immun.  2003 May. 71(5):2916-9.
[Link]

Fitzgerald J, Reid S, Ruotsalainen E, Tripp T, Liu M, Cole R, Kuusela P, Schlievert P, Järvinen A, Musser J.  Genome diversification in Staphylococcus aureus: Molecular evolution of a highly variable chromosomal region encoding the Staphylococcal exotoxin-like family of proteins.  Infect Immun.  2003 May. 71(5):2827-38.
[Link]

Tripp T, McCormick J, Webb J, Schlievert P.  The zinc-dependent major histocompatibility complex class II binding site of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C is critical for maximal superantigen function and toxic activity.  Infect Immun.  2003 March. 71(3):1548-50.
[Link]

Holbrook T, Munday J, Brown C, Glover B, Schlievert P, Sanchez S.  Toxic shock syndrome in a horse with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.  J Am Vet Med Assoc.  2003 March 1. 222(5):620-3, 601-2.
[Link]

Bernstein J, Ballow M, Schlievert P, Rich G, Allen C, Dryja D.  A superantigen hypothesis for the pathogenesis of chronic hyperplastic sinusitis with massive nasal polyposis.  Am J Rhinol.  2003. 17(6):321-6.
[Link]

McCormick J, Schlievert P.  Expression, purification, and detection of novel streptococcal superantigens.  Methods Mol Biol.  2003. 214:33-43.
[Link]

McCormick J, Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Pyrogenic, lethal, and emetic properties of superantigens in rabbits and primates.  Methods Mol Biol.  2003. 214:245-53.
[Link]

Fey P, Saïd-Salim B, Rupp M, Hinrichs S, Boxrud D, Davis C, Kreiswirth B, Schlievert P.  Comparative molecular analysis of community- or hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother.  2003 January. 47(1):196-203.
[Link]

Smoot L, McCormick J, Smoot J, Hoe N, Strickland I, Cole R, Barbian K, Earhart C, Ohlendorf D, Veasy L, Hill H, Leung D, Schlievert P, Musser J.  Characterization of two novel pyrogenic toxin superantigens made by an acute rheumatic fever clone of Streptococcus pyogenes associated with multiple disease outbreaks.  Infect Immun.  2002 December. 70(12):7095-104.
[Link]

Orwin P, Leung D, Tripp T, Bohach G, Earhart C, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Characterization of a novel staphylococcal enterotoxin-like superantigen, a member of the group V subfamily of pyrogenic toxins.  Biochemistry.  2002 November 26. 41(47):1033-40.
[Link]

Beres S, Sylva G, Barbian K, Lei B, Hoff J, Mammarella N, Liu M, Smoot J, Porcella S, Parkins L, Campbell D, Smith T, McCormick J, Leung D, Schlievert P, Musser J.  Genome sequence of a serotype M3 strain of group A Streptococcus: phage-encoded toxins, the high-virulence phenotype, and clone emergence.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  2002 July 23. 99(15):10078-83.
[Link]

Leung D, Meissner H, Schulman S, Mason W, Gerber M, Glode M, Myones B, Wheeler J, Ruthazer R, Schlievert P.  Prevalence of superantigen-secreting bacteria in patients with Kawasaki disease.  J Pediatr.  2002 June. 140(6):742-6.
[Link]

Sundberg E, Li H, Llera A, McCormick J, Tormo J, Schlievert P, Karjalainen K, Mariuzza R.  Structures of two streptococcal superantigens bound to TCR beta chains reveal diversity in the architecture of T cell signaling complexes.  Structure.  2002 May. 10(5):687-99.
[Link]

Yarwood J, McCormick J, Paustian M, Orwin P, Kapur V, Schlievert P.  Characterization and expression analysis of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island 3. Implications for the evolution of staphylococcal pathogenicity islands.  J Biol Chem.  2002 April 12. 277(15):13138-47.
[Link]

McCormick J, Tripp T, Dunny G, Schlievert P.  Formation of vegetations during infective endocarditis excludes binding of bacterial-specific host antibodies to Enterococcus faecalis.  J Infect Dis.  2002 April 1. 185(7):994-7.
[Link]

Hirt H, Schlievert P, Dunny G.  In vivo induction of virulence and antibiotic resistance transfer in Enterococcus faecalis mediated by the sex pheromone-sensing system of pCF10.  Infect Immun.  2002 February. 70(2):716-23.
[Link]

Yarwood J, McCormick J, Paustian M, Kapur V, Schlievert P.  Repression of the Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator in serum and in vivo.  J Bacteriol.  2002 February. 184(4):1095-101.
[Link]

Cone L, Byrd R, Schulz K, Schlievert P.  Recurrent nonmenstrual toxic shock.  Clin Infect Dis.  2002 January 15. 34(2):289.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens.  ASM Publications, Washington, DC.  2002. 

Perkins S, Han D, Schlievert P, et al .  The ability of human immune globulin to attenuate the toxic effects of pooled Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.  2002. 43:4439.

Dinges M, Schlievert P.  Comparative analysis of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha activity in serum and lethality in mice and rabbits pretreated with the staphylococcal superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.  Infect Immun.  2001 November. 69(11):7169-72.
[Link]

Sutkin G, Capelle S, Schlievert P, Creinin M.  Toxic shock syndrome after laminaria insertion.  Obstet Gynecol.  2001 November. 98(5 Pt 2):959-61.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndromes and related illnesses.  J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2001 October. 108(4 Suppl):S107-10.
[Link]

Novick R, Schlievert P, Ruzin A.  Pathogenicity and resistance islands of staphylococci.  Microbes Infect.  2001 June. 3(7):585-94.
[Link]

McCormick J, Hirt H, Waters C, Tripp T, Dunny G, Schlievert P.  Antibodies to a surface-exposed, N-terminal domain of aggregation substance are not protective in the rabbit model of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis.  Infect Immun.  2001 May. 69(5):3305-14.
[Link]

McCormick J, Pragman A, Stolpa J, Leung D, Schlievert P.  Functional characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin J, a novel superantigen.  Infect Immun.  2001 March. 69(3):1381-8.
[Link]

Reed S, Wesson C, Liou L, Trumble W, Schlievert P, Bohach G, Bayles K.  Molecular characterization of a novel Staphylococcus aureus serine protease operon.  Infect Immun.  2001 March. 69(3):1521-7.
[Link]

Dinges M, Schlievert P.  Role of T cells and gamma interferon during induction of hypersensitivity to lipopolysaccharide by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in mice.  Infect Immun.  2001 March. 69(3):1256-64.
[Link]

Yarwood J, McCormick J, Schlievert P.  Identification of a novel two-component regulatory system that acts in global regulation of virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus.  J Bacteriol.  2001 February. 183(4):1113-23.
[Link]

Meyer R, Monday S, Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Prolonged course of toxic shock syndrome associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins G and I.  Int J Infect Dis.  2001. 5(3):163-6.
[Link]

McCormick J, Yarwood J, Schlievert P.  Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: an update.  Annu Rev Microbiol.  2001. 55:77-104.
[Link]

Orwin P, Leung D, Donahue H, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Biochemical and biological properties of Staphylococcal enterotoxin K.  Infect Immun.  2001 January. 69(1):360-6.
[Link]

Li Y, Li H, Dimasi N, McCormick J, Martin R, Schuck P, Schlievert P, Mariuzza R.  Crystal structure of a superantigen bound to the high-affinity, zinc-dependent site on MHC class II.  Immunity.  2001 January. 14(1):93-104.
[Link]

Mitchell D, Levitt D, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  Structural evidence for the evolution of pyrogenic toxin superantigens.  J Mol Evol.  2000 December. 51(6):520-31.
[Link]

Yarwood J, Leung D, Schlievert P.  Evidence for the involvement of bacterial superantigens in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and Kawasaki syndrome.  FEMS Microbiol Lett.  2000 November 1. 192(1):1-7.
[Link]

Earhart C, Vath G, Roggiani M, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  Structure of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A reveals a novel metal cluster.  Protein Sci.  2000 September. 9(9):1847-51.
[Link]

Roggiani M, Stoehr J, Olmsted S, Matsuka Y, Pillai S, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Toxoids of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A are protective in rabbit models of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.  Infect Immun.  2000 September. 68(9):5011-7.
[Link]

McCormick J, Tripp T, Olmsted S, Matsuka Y, Gahr P, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Development of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C vaccine toxoids that are protective in the rabbit model of toxic shock syndrome.  J Immunol.  2000 August 15. 165(4):2306-12.
[Link]

McCormick J, Hirt H, Dunny G, Schlievert P.  Pathogenic Mechanisms of Enterococcal Endocarditis.  Curr Infect Dis Rep.  2000 August. 2(4):315-21.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Jablonski L, Roggiani M, Sadler I, Callentine S, Mitchell D, Ohlendorf D, Bohach G.  Pyrogenic toxin superantigen site specificity in toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning in animals.  Infect Immun.  2000 June. 68(6):3630-4.
[Link]

Yarwood J, Schlievert P.  Oxygen and carbon dioxide regulation of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus MN8.  J Clin Microbiol.  2000 May. 38(5):1797-803.
[Link]

Skov L, Olsen J, Giorno R, Schlievert P, Baadsgaard O, Leung D.  Application of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B on normal and atopic skin induces up-regulation of T cells by a superantigen-mediated mechanism.  J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2000 April. 105(4):820-6.
[Link]

Rago J, Vath G, Tripp T, Bohach G, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins cleave alpha- and beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormones.  Infect Immun.  2000 April. 68(4):2366-8.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Will therapeutic peptides be kryptonite for superantigens?.  Nat Med.  2000 April. 6(4):378-9.
[Link]

Rago J, Vath G, Bohach G, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Mutational analysis of the superantigen staphylococcal exfoliative toxin A (ETA).  J Immunol.  2000 February 15. 164(4):2207-13.
[Link]

Roggiani M, Assimacopoulos A, Schlievert P.  Exotoxins of Streptococcus pyogenes.  Oxford University Press, New York.  2000. 

Roggiani M, Schlievert P.  Purification of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin a.  Methods Mol Med.  2000. 36:59-66.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Kotb M, Stevens D.  Streptococcal superantigens: Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.  Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.  2000. 

McCormick J, Schlievert P.  Toxins and superantigens of group A streptococci.  ASM Publications, Washington, DC.  2000. 

Dinges M, Orwin P, Schlievert P.  Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus.  Clin Microbiol Rev.  2000 January. 13(1):16-34.
[Link]

Hunt C, Dionne M, Delorme M, Murdock D, Erdrich A, Wolsey D, Groom A, Cheek J, Jacobson J, Cunningham B, Shireley L, Belani K, Kurachek S, Ackerman P, Cameron S, Schlievert P, Pfeiffer J, Johnson S, Boxrud D, Bartkus J, Besser J, Smith K, LeDell K, O'Boyle C, Lynfield R, White K, Osterholm M, Moore K, Danila R.  Four Pediatric Deaths from Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus — Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997–1999.  Arch Dermatol.  1999 December. 135:1566-8.
[Link]

Travers J, Hamid Q, Norris D, Kuhn C, Giorno R, Schlievert P, Farmer E, Leung D.  Epidermal HLA-DR and the enhancement of cutaneous reactivity to superantigenic toxins in psoriasis.  J Clin Invest.  1999 November. 104(9):1181-9.
[Link]

Hunt C, Dionne M, Delorme M, Murdock D, Erdrich A, Wolsey D, Groom A, Cheek J, Jacobson J, Cunningham B, Shireley L, Belani K, Kurachek S, Ackerman P, Cameron S, Schlievert P, Pfeiffer J, Johnson S, Boxrud D, Bartkus J, Besser J, Smith K, LeDell K, O'Boyle C, Lynfield R, White K, Osterholm M, Moore K, Danila R.  Four Pediatric Deaths from Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus — Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997–1999.  JAMA.  1999 September. 282(12):1123-5.
[Link]

Hall M, Hoyt L, Ferrieri P, Schlievert P, Jenson H.  Kawasaki syndrome-like illness associated with infection caused by enterotoxin B-secreting Staphylococcus aureus.  Clin Infect Dis.  1999 September. 29(3):586-9.
[Link]

Wann E, Fehringer A, Ezepchuk Y, Schlievert P, Bina P, Reiser R, Höök M, Leung D.  Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with Kawasaki disease express high levels of protein A.  Infect Immun.  1999 September. 67(9):4737-43.
[Link]

Hunt C, Dionne M, Delorme M, Murdock D, Erdrich A, Wolsey D, Groom A, Cheek J, Jacobson J, Cunningham B, Shireley L, Belani K, Kurachek S, Ackerman P, Cameron S, Schlievert P, Pfeiffer J, Johnson S, Boxrud D, Bartkus J, Besser J, Smith K, LeDell K, O'Boyle C, Lynfield R, White K, Osterholm M, Moore K, Danila R.  Four Pediatric Deaths from Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus — Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997–1999.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.  1999 August 20. 48(32):707-10.
[Link]

Vath G, Earhart C, Monie D, Iandolo J, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  The crystal structure of exfoliative toxin B: a superantigen with enzymatic activity.  Biochemistry.  1999 August 10. 38(32):10239-46.
[Link]

Monday S, Vath G, Ferens W, Deobald C, Rago J, Gahr P, Monie D, Iandolo J, Chapes S, Davis W, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P, Bohach G.  Unique superantigen activity of staphylococcal exfoliative toxins.  J Immunol.  1999 April 15. 162(8):4550-9.
[Link]

Andersen P, Lavoie P, Sékaly R, Churchill H, Kranz D, Schlievert P, Karjalainen K, Mariuzza R.  Role of the T cell receptor alpha chain in stabilizing TCR-superantigen-MHC class II complexes.  Immunity.  1999 April. 10(4):473-83.
[Link]

Hofer M, Harbeck R, Schlievert P, Leung D.  Staphylococcal toxins augment specific IgE responses by atopic patients exposed to allergen.  J Invest Dermatol.  1999 February. 112(2):171-6.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  My Experiences with Toxic Shock Syndrome Research.  Infect Dis Clin Pract.  1998 December. 7(9):459-62.

Li H, Llera A, Tsuchiya D, Leder L, Ysern X, Schlievert P, Karjalainen K, Mariuzza R.  Three-dimensional structure of the complex between a T cell receptor beta chain and the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B.  Immunity.  1998 December. 9(6):807-16.
[Link]

Leung D, Schlievert P, Meissner H.  The immunopathogenesis and management of Kawasaki syndrome.  Arthritis Rheum.  1998 September. 41(9):1538-47.
[Link]

Cockerill 3rd F, Schlievert P, Musser J.  Epidemiology of invasive streptococcal infections.  J Infect Dis.  1998 June. 177(6):1773-4.
[Link]

Cockerill 3rd F, Thompson R, Musser J, Schlievert P, Talbot J, Holley K, Harmsen W, Ilstrup D, Kohner P, Kim M, Frankfort B, Manahan J, Steckelberg J, Roberson F, Wilson W.  Molecular, serological, and clinical features of 16 consecutive cases of invasive streptococcal disease. Southeastern Minnesota Streptococcal Working Group.  Clin Infect Dis.  1998 June. 26(6):1448-58.
[Link]

Earhart C, Mitchell D, Murray D, Pinheiro D, Matsumura M, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  Structures of five mutants of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 with reduced biological activity.  Biochemistry.  1998 May 19. 37(20):7194-202.
[Link]

Saiman L, Jakob K, Holmes K, Whittier S, Garzon M, Rago J, Schlievert P, Della-Latta P.  Molecular epidemiology of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in premature infants.  Pediatr Infect Dis J.  1998 April. 17(4):329-34.
[Link]

Leder L, Llera A, Lavoie P, Lebedeva M, Li H, Sékaly R, Bohach G, Gahr P, Schlievert P, Karjalainen K, Mariuzza R.  A mutational analysis of the binding of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C3 to the T cell receptor beta chain and major histocompatibility complex class II.  J Exp Med.  1998 March 16. 187(6):823-33.
[Link]

Bohach G, Jablonski J, Roggiani M, Sadler I, Schlievert P, Mitchell D, Ohlendorf D.  Biological activity of pyrogenic toxins delivered to the mucosal surface.  International Congress and Symposium Series.  1998. 229:170-2.

Dinges M, Jessurun J, Schlievert P.  Comparisons of mouse and rabbit models of toxic shock syndrome.  International Congress and Symposium Series.  1998. 229:167-8.

Schlievert P.  Effect of contraceptive diaphragms on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).  International Congress and Symposium Series.  1998. 229:128-30.

Schlievert P.  Incidence studies of toxic shock syndrome.  International Congress and Symposium Series.  1998. 229:34-6.

Rago J, Schlievert P.  Mechanisms of pathogenesis of staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens.  Curr Top Microbiol Immunol.  1998. 225:81-97.
[Link]

Olmsted S, Matsuka Y, Roggiani M, Pillai S, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Structural and biological analysis of genetic mutants of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SPE A).  International Congress and Symposium Series.  1998. 229:93-5.

Ohlendorf D, Earhart C, Mitchell D, Vath G, Roggiani M, Rago J, Kim M, Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Structural biology of toxins associated with TSS.  International Congress and Symposium Series.  1998. 229:89-91.

Schlievert P.  Trends within the pyrogenic toxin superantigen family.  International Congress and Symposium Series.  1998. 229:79-84.

Hirt H, Chen Y, Schlievert P, Dunny G.  Use of electroporation in genetic analysis of enterococcal virulence.  Meth Cell Science.  1998. 20(1-4):79-84.

Schlievert P, Gahr P, Assimacopoulos A, Dinges M, Stoehr J, Harmala J, Hirt H, Dunny G.  Aggregation and binding substances enhance pathogenicity in rabbit models of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis.  Infect Immun.  1998 January. 66(1):218-23.
[Link]

Bey T, Walter F, Lober W, Schmidt J, Spark R, Schlievert P.  Loxosceles arizonica bite associated with shock.  Ann Emerg Med.  1997 November. 30(5):701-3.
[Link]

Leung D, Sullivan K, Brown-Whitehorn T, Fehringer A, Allen S, Finkel T, Washington R, Makida R, Schlievert P.  Association of toxic shock syndrome toxin-secreting and exfoliative toxin-secreting Staphylococcus aureus with Kawasaki syndrome complicated by coronary artery disease.  Pediatr Res.  1997 September. 42(3):268-72.
[Link]

Roggiani M, Stoehr J, Leonard B, Schlievert P.  Analysis of toxicity of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A mutants.  Infect Immun.  1997 July. 65(7):2868-75.
[Link]

Prasad G, Radhakrishnan R, Mitchell D, Earhart C, Dinges M, Cook W, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  Refined structures of three crystal forms of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and of a tetramutant with reduced activity.  Protein Sci.  1997 June. 6(6):1220-7.
[Link]

Leung D, Meissner H, Schlievert P.  The etiology and pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease - how close are we to an answer?.  Curr Opin Infect Dis.  1997 June. 10(3):226-32.

Vath G, Earhart C, Rago J, Kim M, Bohach G, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  The structure of the superantigen exfoliative toxin A suggests a novel regulation as a serine protease.  Biochemistry.  1997 February 18. 36(7):1559-66.
[Link]

Gaskin D, Bohach G, Schlievert P, Hovde C.  Purification of Staphylococcus aureus beta-toxin: comparison of three isoelectric focusing methods.  Protein Expr Purif.  1997 February. 9(1):76-82.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Dunny G, Stoehr J, Assimacopoulos A.  Aggregation and binding substances enhance pathogenicity in a rabbit model of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis.  Adv Exp Med Biol.  1997. 418:789-91.
[Link]

Mitchell D, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D, Kim J, Wiley D, Urban R, Strominger J.  Comparison of structures of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 unbound and bound to a class II major histocompatibility molecule.  Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.  1997. 

Bohach G, Dinges M, Mitchell D, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Exotoxins.  Churchill Livingstone, New York.  1997. 

Leung D, Huber B, Schlievert P.  Historical perspective of superantigens and their biological activities.  Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.  1997. 

Assimacopoulos A, Stoehr J, Schlievert P.  Mitogenic factors from group G streptococci associated with scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.  Adv Exp Med Biol.  1997. 418:109-14.
[Link]

Kim M, Schlievert P.  Molecular genetics, structure, and immunobiology of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A and C.  Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.  1997. 

Newton D, Norrby-Teglund A, McGeer A, Low D, Schlievert P, Kotb M.  Novel superantigens from streptococcal toxic shock syndrome Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.  Adv Exp Med Biol.  1997. 418:525-9.
[Link]

Assimacopoulos A, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.  Mosby, St Louis.  1997. 

Holm S, Köhler W, Kaplan E, Schlievert P, Alouf J, Stevens D, Kotb M.  Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). An update: a roundtable presentation.  Adv Exp Med Biol.  1997. 418:193-9.
[Link]

Leung D, Schlievert P.  Superantigens in human disease: Future directions in therapy and elucidation of disease pathogenesis.  Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.  1997. 

Superantigens: Molecular Biology, Immunology, and Relevance to Human Disease.  Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY;  1997.

Earhart C, Mitchell D, Murray D, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1: Molecular structure and basis for T-cell recognition.  Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.  1997. 

Schlievert P.  Searching for superantigens.  Immunol Invest.  1997 January. 26(1-2):283-90.
[Link]

Cockerill 3rd F, MacDonald K, Thompson R, Roberson F, Kohner P, Besser-Wiek J, Manahan J, Musser J, Schlievert P, Talbot J, Frankfort B, Steckelberg J, Wilson W, Osterholm M.  An outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal disease associated with high carriage rates of the invasive clone among school-aged children.  JAMA.  1997 January 1. 277(1):38-43.
[Link]

Fields B, Malchiodi E, Li H, Ysern X, Stauffacher C, Schlievert P, Karjalainen K, Mariuzza R.  Crystal structure of a T-cell receptor beta-chain complexed with a superantigen.  Nature.  1996 November 14. 384(6605):188-92.
[Link]

Wagner J, Schlievert P, Assimacopoulos A, Stoehr J, Carson P, Komadina K.  Acute group G streptococcal myositis associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: case report and review.  Clin Infect Dis.  1996 November. 23(5):1159-61.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Effect of Merocel vaginal sponge on growth of Staphylococcus aureus and production of toxic shock syndrome-associated toxins.  J Am Coll Surg.  1996 July. 183(1):19-24.
[Link]

Hofer M, Newell K, Duke R, Schlievert P, Freed J, Leung D.  Differential effects of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 on B cell apoptosis.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  1996 May 28. 93(11):5425-30.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Tampons and toxic shock syndrome.  Med J Aust.  1996 May 20. 164(10):635-6.
[Link]

Birnbaum G, Kotilinek L, Schlievert P, Clark H, Trotter J, Horvath E, Gao E, Cox M, Braun P.  Heat shock proteins and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE): I. Immunization with a peptide of the myelin protein 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase that is cross-reactive with a heat shock protein alters the course of EAE.  J Neurosci Res.  1996 May 15. 44(4):381-96.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Reply concerning toxic shock syndrome.  J Infect Dis.  1996 May. 173(5):1290-91.
[Link]

Vugia D, Peterson C, Meyers H, Kim K, Arrieta A, Schlievert P, Kaplan E, Werner S.  Invasive group A streptococcal infections in children with varicella in Southern California.  Pediatr Infect Dis J.  1996 February. 15(2):146-50.
[Link]

Kim M, Assimacopoulos A, Schlievert P.  PCR amplification and Southern hybridization detection of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins in Streptococcus pyogenes.  ASM Press, Washington, DC.  1996. 

Assimacopoulos A, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock and Kawasaki syndrome.  Mosby, St Louis.  1996. 

Bohach G, Stauffacher C, Ohlendorf D, Chi Y, Vath G, Schlievert P.  The staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxin family.  Adv Exp Med Biol.  1996. 391:131-54.
[Link]

Murray D, Earhart C, Mitchell D, Ohlendorf D, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Localization of biologically important regions on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.  Infect Immun.  1996 January. 64(1):371-4.
[Link]

Witcher K, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Modulation of immune cell proliferation by glycerol monolaurate.  Clin Diagn Lab Immunol.  1996 January. 3(1):10-3.
[Link]

Manders S, Heymann W, Atillasoy E, Kleeman J, Schlievert P.  Recurrent toxin-mediated perineal erythema.  Arch Dermatol.  1996 January. 132(1):57-60.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Assimacopoulos A, Cleary P.  Severe invasive group A streptococcal disease: clinical description and mechanisms of pathogenesis.  J Lab Clin Med.  1996 January. 127(1):13-22.
[Link]

Hofer M, Lester M, Schlievert P, Leung D.  Upregulation of IgE synthesis by staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with atopic dermatitis.  Clin Exp Allergy.  1995 December. 25(12):1218-27.
[Link]

Malchiodi E, Eisenstein E, Fields B, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P, Karjalainen K, Mariuzza R.  Superantigen binding to a T cell receptor beta chain of known three-dimensional structure.  J Exp Med.  1995 December 1. 182(6):1833-45.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bohach G, Ohlendorf D, Stauffacher C, Leung D, Murray D, Prasad G, Earhart C, Jablonski L, Hoffmann M, Chi Y.  Molecular structure of staphylococcus and streptococcus superantigens.  J Clin Immunol.  1995 November. 15(6 Suppl):4S-10S.
[Link]

Leung D, Meissner H, Fulton D, Quimby F, Schlievert P.  Superantigens in Kawasaki syndrome.  Clin Immunol Immunopathol.  1995 November. 77(2):119-26.
[Link]

Leung D, Meissner C, Fulton D, Schlievert P.  The potential role of bacterial superantigens in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki syndrome.  J Clin Immunol.  1995 November. 15(6 Suppl):11S-17S.
[Link]

Leung D, Travers J, Giorno R, Norris D, Skinner R, Aelion J, Kazemi L, Kim M, Trumble A, Kotb M, Schlievert P.  Evidence for a streptococcal superantigen-driven process in acute guttate psoriasis.  J Clin Invest.  1995 November 1. 96(5):2106-12.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Comparison of cotton and cotton/rayon tampons for effect on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin.  J Infect Dis.  1995 October. 172(4):1112-4.
[Link]

Nyberg S, Schlievert P, Saul W, Johnson J, Ferrieri P, Watkins V.  Successful management of a serious group A streptococcal infection during the third trimester of pregnancy.  Clin Infect Dis.  1995 October. 21(4):1058-9.
[Link]

Forni A, Kaplan E, Schlievert P, Roberts R.  Clinical and microbiological characteristics of severe group A streptococcus infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.  Clin Infect Dis.  1995 August. 21(2):233-40.
[Link]

Schad E, Zaitseva I, Zaitsev V, Dohlsten M, Kalland T, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D, Svensson L.  Crystal structure of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin type A.  EMBO J.  1995 July 17. 14(14):3292-301.
[Link]

Hussain S, Luedtke G, Baker C, Schlievert P, Leggiadro R.  Invasive group B streptococcal disease in children beyond early infancy.  Pediatr Infect Dis J.  1995 April. 14(4):278-81.
[Link]

Leung D, Gately M, Trumble A, Ferguson-Darnell B, Schlievert P, Picker L.  Bacterial superantigens induce T cell expression of the skin-selective homing receptor, the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, via stimulation of interleukin 12 production.  J Exp Med.  1995 February 1. 181(2):747-53.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Role of streptococcal pyrogenic toxin superantigens in invasive disease.  Spirit Bulletin.  1995. 5:8-10.

Murray D, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens in human disease.  ASM News.  1995. 61:229-35.

Schlievert P.  The role of superantigens in human diseases.  Curr Sci.  1995. 8:170-4.

Watanabe-Ohnishi R, Low D, McGeer A, Stevens D, Schlievert P, Newton D, Schwartz B, Kreiswirth B, Kotb M.  Selective depletion of V beta-bearing T cells in patients with severe invasive group A streptococcal infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Ontario Streptococcal Study Project.  J Infect Dis.  1995 January. 171(1):74-84.
[Link]

Smith R, Schlievert P, Himelright I, Baddour L.  Dual infections with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes causing toxic shock syndrome. Possible synergistic effects of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C.  Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis.  1994 August. 19(4):245-7.
[Link]

Roggiani M, Schlievert P.  Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, including necrotizing fasciitis and myositis.  Curr Opin Infect Dis.  1994 August. 7(4):423-6.

Projan S, Brown-Skrobot S, Schlievert P, Vandenesch F, Novick R.  Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the production of beta-lactamase, toxic shock toxin-1, and other staphylococcal exoproteins by interfering with signal transduction.  J Bacteriol.  1994 July. 176(14):4204-9.
[Link]

Meissner H, Schlievert P, Leung D.  Mechanisms of immunoglobulin action: observations on Kawasaki syndrome and RSV prophylaxis.  Immunol Rev.  1994 June. 139:109-23.
[Link]

Birnbaum G, Kotilinek L, Schlievert P.  Immunologic cross-reactivity between a mycobacterial heat-shock protein and the myelin basic protein, 2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase.  Neurology.  1994. 44:A146.

Lee P, Kreiswirth B, Deringer J, Projan S, Eisner W, Smith B, Carlson E, Vercellotti G, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Nucleotide sequences and biological properties of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 from ovine and bovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus.  Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie Supplement.  1994. 26:328-30.

Schlievert P, Leonard B, Lee P, Kreiswirth B, Eisner W, Projan S, Novick R.  Staphylococcal and group A streptococcal pyrogenic toxin superantigens associated with toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses.  Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie Supplement.  1994. 26:303-11.

Davies H, Matlow A, Scriver S, Schlievert P, Lovgren M, Talbot J, Low D.  Apparent lower rates of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and lower mortality in children with invasive group A streptococcal infections compared with adults.  Pediatr Infect Dis J.  1994 January. 13(1):49-56.
[Link]

Murray D, Prasad G, Earhart C, Leonard B, Kreiswirth B, Novick R, Ohlendorf D, Schlievert P.  Immunobiologic and biochemical properties of mutants of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.  J Immunol.  1994 January 1. 152(1):87-95.
[Link]

Prasad G, Earhart C, Murray D, Novick R, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  Structure of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.  Biochemistry.  1993 December 21. 32(50):13761-6.
[Link]

Leung D, Meissner H, Fulton D, Murray D, Kotzin B, Schlievert P.  Toxic shock syndrome toxin-secreting Staphylococcus aureus in Kawasaki syndrome.  Lancet.  1993 December 4. 342(8884):1385-8.
[Link]

Earhart C, Prasad G, Murray D, Novick R, Schlievert P, Ohlendorf D.  Growth and analysis of crystal forms of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.  Proteins.  1993 November. 17(3):329-34.
[Link]

Ware J, Eich W, Ruben E, Malone J, Schlievert P, Gray B.  Streptococcal toxic shock in three Alabama children.  Pediatr Infect Dis J.  1993 September. 12(9):765-9.
[Link]

Wang B, Schlievert P, Gaber A, Kotb M.  Localization of an immunologically functional region of the streptococcal superantigen pepsin-extracted fragment of type 5 M protein.  J Immunol.  1993 August 1. 151(3):1419-29.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Gocke J, Deringer J.  Group B streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome: report of a case and purification of an associated pyrogenic toxin.  Clin Infect Dis.  1993 July. 17(1):26-31.
[Link]

Leggiadro R, Bugnitz M, Peck B, Luedtke G, Kim M, Kaplan E, Schlievert P.  Group A streptococcal bacteremia in a mid-south children's hospital.  South Med J.  1993 June. 86(6):615-8.
[Link]

Demers B, Simor A, Vellend H, Schlievert P, Byrne S, Jamieson F, Walmsley S, Low D.  Severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada: 1987-1991.  Clin Infect Dis.  1993 June. 16(6):792-800.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Role of superantigens in human disease.  J Infect Dis.  1993 May. 167(5):997-1002.
[Link]

Schwab J, Brown R, Anderle S, Schlievert P.  Superantigen can reactivate bacterial cell wall-induced arthritis.  J Immunol.  1993 May 1. 150(9):4151-9.
[Link]

Musser J, Kapur V, Kanjilal S, Shah U, Musher D, Barg N, Johnston K, Schlievert P, Henrichsen J, Gerlach D, Rakita R, Tanna A, Cookson B, Huang J.  Geographic and temporal distribution and molecular characterization of two highly pathogenic clones of Streptococcus pyogenes expressing allelic variants of pyrogenic exotoxin A (Scarlet fever toxin).  J Infect Dis.  1993 February. 167(2):337-46.
[Link]

Breiman R, Davis J, Facklam R, Gray B, Hoge C, Kaplan E, Mortimer E, Schlievert P, Schwartz B, Stevens D, Todd J.  Defining the Group A Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: Rationale and Consensus Definition.  JAMA.  1993 January 20. 269(3):390-1.
[Link]

Blocki F, Schlievert P, Wackett L.  Rat liver protein linking chemical and immunological detoxification systems.  Nature.  1992 November 19. 360(6401):269-70.
[Link]

Cherchi G, Kaplan E, Schlievert P, Bitti A, Orefici G.  First reported case of Streptococcus pyogenes infection with toxic shock-like syndrome in Italy.  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis.  1992 September. 11(9):836-8.
[Link]

Leonard B, Schlievert P.  Immune cell lethality induced by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and endotoxin.  Infect Immun.  1992 September. 60(9):3747-55.
[Link]

Kapur V, Nelson K, Schlievert P, Selander R, Musser J.  Molecular population genetic evidence of horizontal spread of two alleles of the pyrogenic exotoxin C gene (speC) among pathogenic clones of Streptococcus pyogenes.  Infect Immun.  1992 September. 60(9):3513-7.
[Link]

Lee P, Kreiswirth B, Deringer J, Projan S, Eisner W, Smith B, Carlson E, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Nucleotide sequences and biological properties of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 from ovine- and bovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus.  J Infect Dis.  1992 June. 165(6):1056-63.
[Link]

Begovac J, Gmajnicki B, Schlievert P, Johnson D, Kaplan E.  Production of pyrogenic exotoxins in group A streptococci isolated from patients in Zagreb, Croatia.  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis.  1992 June. 11(6):540-3.
[Link]

Chapnick E, Gradon J, Lutwick L, Kim J, Levi M, Kim M, Schlievert P.  Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to noninvasive pharyngitis.  Clin Infect Dis.  1992 May. 14(5):1074-7.
[Link]

Cone L, Woodard D, Byrd R, Schulz K, Kopp S, Schlievert P.  A recalcitrant, erythematous, desquamating disorder associated with toxin-producing staphylococci in patients with AIDS.  J Infect Dis.  1992 April. 165(4):638-43.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Deringer J, Kim M, Projan S, Novick R.  Effect of glycerol monolaurate on bacterial growth and toxin production.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother.  1992 March. 36(3):626-31.
[Link]

Musser J, Gray B, Schlievert P, Pichichero M.  Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis: characterization of strains by multilocus enzyme genotype, M and T protein serotype, and pyrogenic exotoxin gene probing.  J Clin Microbiol.  1992 March. 30(3):600-3.
[Link]

Cleary P, Kaplan E, Handley J, Wlazlo A, Kim M, Hauser A, Schlievert P.  Clonal basis for resurgence of serious Streptococcus pyogenes disease in the 1980s.  Lancet.  1992 February 28. 339(8792):518-21.
[Link]

Tomai M, Schlievert P, Kotb M.  Distinct T-cell receptor V beta gene usage by human T lymphocytes stimulated with the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins and pep M5 protein.  Infect Immun.  1992 February. 60(2):701-5.
[Link]

Ostrow R, Forslund K, McGlennen R, Shaw D, Schlievert P, Ussery M, Huggins J, Faras A.  Ribavirin mitigates wart growth in rabbits at early stages of infection with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.  Antiviral Res.  1992 February. 17(2):99-113.
[Link]

Schlievert P, MacDonald K.  Toxic shock syndrome.  W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.  1992. 

Lee P, Schlievert P.  Toxic shock-like syndrome.  1992. 

Schlievert P, Kim M.  Reporting of toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus in 1982 to 1990.  J Infect Dis.  1991 December. 164(6):1245-6.
[Link]

Kaplan E, Johnson D, Wlazlo A, Kim M, Schlievert P.  Stability of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin production with laboratory manipulation of group A streptococci.  J Infect Dis.  1991 December. 164(6):1210-1.
[Link]

Nelson K, Schlievert P, Selander R, Musser J.  Characterization and clonal distribution of four alleles of the speA gene encoding pyrogenic exotoxin A (scarlet fever toxin) in Streptococcus pyogenes.  J Exp Med.  1991 November 1. 174(5):1271-4.
[Link]

Lee P, Vercellotti G, Deringer J, Schlievert P.  Effects of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 on aortic endothelial cells.  J Infect Dis.  1991 October. 164(4):711-9.
[Link]

Bradley J, Schlievert P, Peterson B.  Toxic shock-like syndrome, a complication of strep throat.  Pediatr Infect Dis J.  1991 October. 10(10):790.
[Link]

Hauser A, Stevens D, Kaplan E, Schlievert P.  Molecular analysis of pyrogenic exotoxins from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates associated with toxic shock-like syndrome.  J Clin Microbiol.  1991 August. 29(8):1562-7.
[Link]

Wheeler M, Roe M, Kaplan E, Schlievert P, Todd J.  Outbreak of group A streptococcus septicemia in children. Clinical, epidemiologic, and microbiological correlates.  JAMA.  1991 July. 266(4):533-7.
[Link]

Belani K, Schlievert P, Kaplan E, Ferrieri P.  Association of exotoxin-producing group A streptococci and severe disease in children.  Pediatr Infect Dis J.  1991 May. 10(5):351-4.
[Link]

Musser J, Hauser A, Kim M, Schlievert P, Nelson K, Selander R.  Streptococcus pyogenes causing toxic-shock-like syndrome and other invasive diseases: clonal diversity and pyrogenic exotoxin expression.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  1991 April 1. 88(7):2668-72.
[Link]

Leonard B, Lee P, Jenkins M, Schlievert P.  Cell and receptor requirements for streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin T-cell mitogenicity.  Infect Immun.  1991 March. 59(3):1210-4.
[Link]

Lee P, Deringer J, Kreiswirth B, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Fluid replacement protection of rabbits challenged subcutaneous with toxic shock syndrome toxins.  Infect Immun.  1991 March. 59(3):879-84.
[Link]

Hauser A, Goshorn S, Kaplan E, Stevens D, Schlievert P.  Molecular analysis of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.  ASM Publications, Washington, DC.  1991. 

Lee P, Schlievert P.  Molecular genetics of pyrogenic exotoxin "superantigens" of group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus.  Curr Top Microbiol Immunol.  1991. 174:1-19.
[Link]

Bradley J, Schlievert P, Sample Jr T.  Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome as a complication of varicella.  Pediatr Infect Dis J.  1991 January. 10(1):77-9.
[Link]

Valenzuela T, Hooton T, Kaplan E, Schlievert P.  Transmission of 'toxic strep' syndrome from an infected child to a firefighter during CPR.  Ann Emerg Med.  1991 January. 20(1):90-2.
[Link]

Hauser A, Schlievert P.  Nucleotide sequence of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B gene and relationship between the toxin and the streptococcal proteinase precursor.  J Bacteriol.  1990 August. 172(8):4536-42.
[Link]

McCollister B, Kreiswirth B, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Production of toxic shock syndrome-like illness in rabbits by Staphylococcus aureus D4508: association with enterotoxin A.  Infect Immun.  1990 July. 58(7):2067-70.
[Link]

Norton S, Schlievert P, Novick R, Jenkins M.  Molecular requirements for T cell activation by the staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.  J Immunol.  1990 March 15. 144(6):2089-95.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bohach G, Hovde C, Kreiswirth B, Novick R.  Molecular studies of toxic shock syndrome associated staphylococcal and streptococcal toxins.  VCH Publishers, NY.  1990. 

Nelson R, Fast D, Schlievert P.  Pyrogenic toxin stimulation of TNF Production by human mononuclear leukocytes and effect of TNF on neutrophil Chemotaxis.  S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.  1990. 

Bohach G, Fast D, Nelson R, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins involved in toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses.  Crit Rev Microbiol.  1990. 17(4):251-72.
[Link]

Musser J, Schlievert P, Chow A, Ewan P, Kreiswirth B, Rosdahl V, Naidu A, Witte W, Selander R.  A single clone of Staphylococcus aureus causes the majority of cases of toxic shock syndrome.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.  1990 January. 87(1):225-9.
[Link]

Lee P, Schlievert P.  Quantification and toxicity of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins in an animal model of toxic shock syndrome-like illness.  J Clin Microbiol.  1989 August. 27(8):1890-2.
[Link]

Stevens D, Tanner M, Winship J, Swarts R, Ries K, Schlievert P, Kaplan E.  Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A.  N Engl J Med.  1989 July 6. 321(1):1-7.
[Link]

Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Conservation of the biologically active portions of staphylococcal enterotoxins C1 and C2.  Infect Immun.  1989 July. 57(7):2249-52.
[Link]

Rizkallah M, Tolaymat A, Martinez J, Schlievert P, Ayoub E.  Toxic shock syndrome caused by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that produces enterotoxin C but not toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.  Am J Dis Child.  1989 July. 143(7):848-9.
[Link]

Goshorn S, Schlievert P.  Bacteriophage association of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C.  J Bacteriol.  1989 June. 171(6):3068-73.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Gray E.  Group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (scarlet fever toxin) type A and blastogen A are the same protein.  Infect Immun.  1989 June. 57(6):1865-7.
[Link]

Priest B, Schlievert P, Dunn D.  Treatment of toxic shock syndrome with endotoxin-neutralizing antibody.  J Surg Res.  1989 June. 46(6):527-31.
[Link]

Cavalieri S, Allais J, Schlievert P, Dworzack D, Clark R.  Group A streptococcal peritonitis in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.  Am J Med.  1989 February. 86(2):249-50.
[Link]

Bohach G, Kreiswirth B, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Analysis of toxic shock syndrome isolates producing staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C1 with use of southern hybridization and immunologic assays.  Rev Infect Dis.  1989 January. 11(Suppl 1):S75-81; discussion S81-2.
[Link]

Bohach G, Handley J, Schlievert P.  Biological and immunological properties of the carboxyl terminus of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1.  Infect Immun.  1989 January. 57(1):23-8.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Role of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in toxic shock syndrome: overview.  Rev Infect Dis.  1989 January. 11 Suppl 1:S107-9.
[Link]

Kreiswirth B, Projan S, Schlievert P, Novick R.  Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 is encoded by a variable genetic element.  Rev Infect Dis.  1989 January. 11 Suppl 1:S83-8; discussion S88-9.
[Link]

Fast D, Schlievert P, Nelson R.  Toxic shock syndrome-associated staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins are potent inducers of tumor necrosis factor production.  Infect Immun.  1989 January. 57(1):291-4.
[Link]

Peng H, Novick R, Kreiswirth B, Kornblum J, Schlievert P.  Cloning, characterization, and sequencing of an accessory gene regulator (agr) in Staphylococcus aureus.  J Bacteriol.  1988 September. 170(9):4365-72.
[Link]

Murphy B, Kreiswirth B, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Localization of a biologically important epitope on toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1.  J Infect Dis.  1988 September. 158(3):549-55.
[Link]

Goshorn S, Schlievert P.  Nucleotide sequence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C.  Infect Immun.  1988 September. 56(9):2518-20.
[Link]

Kass E, Schlievert P, Parsonnet J, Mills J.  Effect of magnesium on production of toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1: a collaborative study.  J Infect Dis.  1988 July. 158(1):44-51.
[Link]

Bohach G, Hauser A, Schlievert P.  Cloning of the gene, speB, for streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B in Escherichia coli.  Infect Immun.  1988 June. 56(6):1665-7.
[Link]

Goshorn S, Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Cloning and characterization of the gene, speC, for pyrogenic exotoxin type C from Streptococcus pyogenes.  Mol Gen Genet.  1988 April. 212(1):66-70.
[Link]

Bohach G, Hovde C, Handley J, Schlievert P.  Cross-neutralization of staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.  Infect Immun.  1988 February. 56(2):400-4.
[Link]

Fast D, Schlievert P, Nelson R.  Nonpurulent response to toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Relationship to toxin-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor.  J Immunol.  1988 February 1. 140(3):949-53.
[Link]

Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Detection of endotoxin by enhancement with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).  Methods Enzymol.  1988. 165:302-6.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Immunochemical assays for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.  Methods Enzymol.  1988. 165:339-44.
[Link]

Blomster-Hautamaa D, Schlievert P.  Non-enteric staphylococcal toxins.  Marcel Dekker.  1988. 

Blomster-Hautamaa D, Schlievert P.  Preparation of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.  Methods Enzymol.  1988. 165:37-43.
[Link]

Wannamaker L, Schlievert P.  Streptococcal exotoxins.  Marcel Dekker.  1988. 

Kreiswirth B, Schlievert P, Novick R.  Evaluation of coagulase-negative staphylococci for ability to produce toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.  J Clin Microbiol.  1987 October. 25(10):2028-9.
[Link]

Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Nucleotide sequence of the staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 gene and relatedness to other pyrogenic toxins.  Mol Gen Genet.  1987 August. 209(1):15-20.
[Link]

Cone L, Woodard D, Schlievert P, Tomory G.  Clinical and bacteriologic observations of a toxic shock-like syndrome due to Streptococcus pyogenes.  N Engl J Med.  1987 July 16. 317(3):146-9.
[Link]

Poindexter N, Schlievert P.  Binding of toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  J Infect Dis.  1987 July. 156(1):122-9.
[Link]

Kreiswirth B, Handley J, Schlievert P, Novick R.  Cloning and expression of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in Bacillus subtilis.  Mol Gen Genet.  1987 June. 208(1-2):84-7.
[Link]

Stone R, Schlievert P.  Evidence for the involvement of endotoxin in toxic shock syndrome.  J Infect Dis.  1987 April. 155(4):682-9.
[Link]

MacDonald K, Osterholm M, Hedberg C, Schrock C, Peterson G, Jentzen J, Leonard S, Schlievert P.  Toxic shock syndrome. A newly recognized complication of influenza and influenzalike illness.  JAMA.  1987 February 27. 257(8):1053-8.
[Link]

Bohach G, Schlievert P.  Expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 in Escherichia coli.  Infect Immun.  1987 February. 55(2):428-32.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Johnson L, Tomai M, Handley J.  Characterization and genetics of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.  American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.  1987. 

Blomster-Hautamaa D, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Localization of biologic functions of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 by use of monoclonal antibodies and cyanogen bromide-generated toxin fragments.  J Immunol.  1986 December 1. 137(11):3572-6.
[Link]

Blomster-Hautamaa D, Kreiswirth B, Kornblum J, Novick R, Schlievert P.  The nucleotide and partial amino acid sequence of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.  J Biol Chem.  1986 November 25. 261(33):15783-6.
[Link]

Kreiswirth B, Kravitz G, Schlievert P, Novick R.  Nosocomial transmission of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus causing toxic shock syndrome.  Ann Intern Med.  1986 November. 105(5):704-7.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal enterotoxin B and toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 are significantly associated with non-menstrual TSS.  Lancet.  1986 May 17. 1(8490):1149-50.
[Link]

Johnson L, Tomai M, Schlievert P.  Bacteriophage involvement in group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A production.  J Bacteriol.  1986 May. 166(2):623-7.
[Link]

Johnson L, L'Italien J, Schlievert P.  Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type A (scarlet fever toxin) is related to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.  Mol Gen Genet.  1986 May. 203(2):354-6.
[Link]

Poindexter N, Schlievert P.  Suppression of immunoglobulin-secreting cells from human peripheral blood by toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1.  J Infect Dis.  1986 April. 153(4):772-9.
[Link]

Blomster-Hautamaa D, Kreiswirth B, Novick R, Schlievert P.  Resolution of highly purified toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1 into two distinct proteins by isoelectric focusing.  Biochemistry.  1986 January 14. 25(1):54-9.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Principles of bacterial infection and immunity.  Springer Verlag.  1986. 

Keane W, Gekker G, Schlievert P, Peterson P.  Enhancement of endotoxin-induced isolated renal tubular cell injury by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.  Am J Pathol.  1986 January. 122(1):169-76.
[Link]

Recsei P, Kreiswirth B, O'Reilly M, Schlievert P, Gruss A, Novick R.  Regulation of exoprotein gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by agar.  Mol Gen Genet.  1986 January. 202(1):58-61.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Effect of magnesium on production of toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 by Staphylococcus aureus.  J Infect Dis.  1985 September. 152(3):618-20.
[Link]

Recsei P, Kreiswirth B, O'Reilly M, Schlievert P, Gruss A, Novick R.  Regulation of exoprotein gene expression by agr.  Gustav Fisher Verlag, NY.  1985. 

Poindexter N, Schlievert P.  The Biochemical and Immunological Properties of Toxic-Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (Tsst-1) and Association with TSS.  J Toxicol Tox Rev.  1985. 4(1):1-39.
[Link]

Poindexter N, Schlievert P.  Toxic-shock-syndrome toxin 1-induced proliferation of lymphocytes: comparison of the mitogenic response of human, murine, and rabbit lymphocytes.  J Infect Dis.  1985 January. 151(1):65-72.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Blomster D, Kelly J.  Toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus: effect of tampons on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production.  Obstet Gynecol.  1984 November. 64(5):666-71.
[Link]

Bergdoll M, Schlievert P.  Toxic-shock syndrome toxin.  Lancet.  1984 September. 2(8404):691.

Schlievert P, Kelly J.  Clindamycin-induced suppression of toxic-shock syndrome--associated exotoxin production.  J Infect Dis.  1984 March. 149(3):471.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Biological properties of toxic shock syndrome exotoxin.  Surv Synth Pathol Res.  1984. 3(1):54-62.
[Link]

Johnson L, Schlievert P.  Group A streptococcal phage T12 carries the structural gene for pyrogenic exotoxin type A.  Mol Gen Genet.  1984. 194(1-2):52-6.
[Link]

Bergdoll M, Schlievert P.  Toxic-shock syndrome toxin-one.  ASM News.  1984. 50:525.

Kreiswirth B, Löfdahl S, Betley M, O'Reilly M, Schlievert P, Bergdoll M, Novick R.  The toxic shock syndrome exotoxin structural gene is not detectably transmitted by a prophage.  Nature.  1983 October. 305(5936):709-12.
[Link]

Bonventre P, Weckbach L, Staneck J, Schlievert P, Thompson M.  Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin F and pyrogenic exotoxin C by Staphylococcus aureus isolates from toxic shock syndrome-associated sources.  Infect Immun.  1983 June. 40(3):1023-9.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Varner M, Galask R.  Endotoxin enhancement as a possible etiology of early-onset group B beta-hemolytic streptococcal sepsis in the newborn.  Obstet Gynecol.  1983 May. 61(5):588-92.
[Link]

Pollack M, Weinberg W, Hoskins W, O'Brien W, Iannini P, Anderson S, Schlievert P.  Toxinogenic vaginal infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in menstruating rhesus monkeys without toxic-shock syndrome.  J Infect Dis.  1983 May. 147(5):963-4.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Alteration of immune function by staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C: possible role in toxic-shock syndrome.  J Infect Dis.  1983 March. 147(3):391-8.
[Link]

Altemeier W, Lewis S, Bjornson H, Staneck J, Schlievert P.  Staphylococcus in toxic shock syndrome and other surgical infections. Development of new bacteriophages.  Arch Surg.  1983 March. 118(3):281-4.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Blomster D.  Production of staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C: influence of physical and chemical factors.  J Infect Dis.  1983 February. 147(2):236-42.
[Link]

Peterson P, Schlievert P, Conroy W, Kelly J, Spika J, Quie P.  Protection against staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C-enhanced endotoxin lethality with methylprednisolone and IgG.  J Infect Dis.  1983 February. 147(2):358.
[Link]

Johnson L, Schlievert P.  A physical map of the group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin bacteriophage T12 genome.  Mol Gen Genet.  1983. 189(2):251-5.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Toxic-shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus: Methods for detection.  Lab Management.  1983. 21:38-42.

Kreiswirth B, Novick R, Schlievert P, Bergdoll M.  Genetic studies on Staphylococcal strains from patients with toxic shock syndrome.  Ann Intern Med.  1982 June. 96(6 Pt 2):974-7.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Kelly J.  Staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C: further characterization.  Ann Intern Med.  1982 June. 96(6 Pt 2):982-6.
[Link]

Altemeier W, Lewis S, Schlievert P, Bergdoll M, Bjornson H, Staneck J, Crass B.  Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome: phage typing and toxin capability testing.  Ann Intern Med.  1982 June. 96(6 Pt 2):978-82.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Osterholm M, Kelly J, Nishimura R.  Toxin and enzyme characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with and without toxic shock syndrome.  Ann Intern Med.  1982 June. 96(6 Pt 2):937-40.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Enhancement of host susceptibility to lethal endotoxin shock by staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C.  Infect Immun.  1982 April. 36(1):123-8.
[Link]

Schachern P, Paparella M, Goycoolea M, Goldberg B, Schlievert P.  The round window membrane following application of staphylococcal exotoxin: an electron microscopic study.  Laryngoscope.  1981 December. 91(12):2007-17.
[Link]

Altemeier W, Lewis S, Schlievert P, Bjornson H.  Studies of the staphylococcal causation of toxic shock syndrome.  Surg Gynecol Obstet.  1981 October. 153(4):481-5.
[Link]

Goldberg B, Goycoolea M, Schlievert P, Shea D, Schachern P, Paparella M, Carpenter A.  Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla.  Am J Otolaryngol.  1981 August. 2(3):210-4.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Shands K, Dan B, Schmid G, Nishimura R.  Identification and characterization of an exotoxin from Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic-shock syndrome.  J Infect Dis.  1981 April. 143(4):509-16.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Staphylococcal scarlet fever: role of pyrogenic exotoxins.  Infect Immun.  1981 February. 31(2):732-6.
[Link]

Larsen B, Schlievert P.  TSS: The mystery unfolds.  Contemp OB/Gyn.  1981. 18:219-29.

Schlievert P.  Purification and characterization of staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B.  Biochemistry.  1980 December 23. 19(26):6204-8.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Activation of murine T-suppressor lymphocytes by group A streptococcal and staphylococcal pyurogenic exotoxins.  Infect Immun.  1980 June. 28(3):876-80.
[Link]

Johnson L, Schlievert P, Watson D.  Transfer of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin production to nontoxigenic strains of lysogenic conversion.  Infect Immun.  1980 April. 28(1):254-7.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bettin K, Watson D.  Inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin.  Infect Immun.  1980 February. 27(2):542-8.
[Link]

Goycoolea M, Paparella M, Goldberg B, Schlievert P, Carpenter A.  Permeability of the middle ear to staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin in otitis media.  Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol.  1980 February. 1(4):301-8.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Schoettle D, Watson D.  Ganglioside and monosaccharide inhibition of nonspecific lymphocyte mitogenicity by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.  Infect Immun.  1980 January. 27(1):276-9.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Watson D.  Biogenic amine involvement in pyrogenicity and enhancement of lethal endotoxin shock by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin.  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med.  1979 November. 162(2):269-74.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bettin K, Watson D.  Natural phosphorylation of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C.  Infect Immun.  1979 November. 26(2):585-9.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bettin K, Watson D.  Production of pyrogenic exotoxin by groups of streptococci: association with group A.  J Infect Dis.  1979 November. 140(5):676-81.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bettin K, Watson D.  Reinterpretation of the Dick test: role of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin.  Infect Immun.  1979 November. 26(2):467-72.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Schoettle D, Watson D.  Nonspecific T-lymphocyte mitogenesis by pyrogenic exotoxins from group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus.  Infect Immun.  1979 September. 25(3):1075-7.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Schoettle D, Watson D.  Purification and physicochemical and biological characterization of a staphylococcal pyrogenic exotoxin.  Infect Immun.  1979 March. 23(3):609-17.
[Link]

Barsumian E, Schlievert P, Watson D.  Nonspecific and specific immunological mitogenicity by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.  Infect Immun.  1978 December. 22(3):681-8.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Watson D.  Group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin: pyrogenicity, alteration of blood-brain barrier, and separation of sites for pyrogenicity and enhancement of lethal endotoxin shock.  Infect Immun.  1978 September. 21(3):753-63.
[Link]

Barsumian E, Cunningham C, Schlievert P, Watson D.  Heterogeneity of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B.  Infect Immun.  1978 May. 20(2):512-8.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bettin K, Watson D.  Effect of antipyretics on group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin fever production and ability to enhance lethal endotoxin shock.  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med.  1978 March. 157(3):472-5.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Bettin K, Watson D.  Purification and characterization of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C.  Infect Immun.  1977 May. 16(2):873-9.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Johnson W, Galask R.  Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. VII. The effect of zinc supplementation on bacterial inhibitory activity of amniotic fluids from gestation of 20 weeks.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  1977 March 15. 127(6):603-8.
[Link]

Gallask R, Schlievert P, Johnson W.  Isolation, characterization and spectrum of activity of an antibacterial system in amniotic fluid (AF).  Gynecol Invest.  1977. 8:106-7, Abstr No 167.

Schlievert P, Johnson W, Galask R.  Amniotic fluid antibacterial mechanisms: newer concepts.  Semin Perinatol.  1977 January. 1(1):59-70.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Johnson W, Galask R.  Isolation of a low-molecular-weight antibacterial system from human amniotic fluid.  Infect Immun.  1976 November. 14(5):1156-66.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Johnson W, Galask R.  Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. V. Phosphate-to-zinc ratio as a predictor of bacterial growth-inhibitory activity.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  1976 August 1. 125(7):899-905.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Johnson W, Galask R.  Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. VI. Evidence for a zinc-peptide antibacterial system.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  1976 August 1. 125(7):906-10.
[Link]

Schlievert P.  Isolation and characterization of a low molecular weight antibacterial system from human amniotic fluid.  University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.  1976. 

Schlievert P, Larsen B, Johnson W, Galask R.  Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. III. Demonstration of the variability of bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid with a new plate-count technique.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  1975 August 1. 122(7):809-19.
[Link]

Schlievert P, Larsen B, Johnson W, Galask R.  Bacterial growth inhibition by amniotic fluid. IV. Studies on the nature of bacterial inhibition with the use of plate-count determinations.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  1975 August 1. 122(7):814-9.
[Link]

Larsen B, Schlievert P, Galask R.  The spectrum of antibacterial activity of human amniotic fluid determined by scanning electron microscopy.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  1974 August 1. 119(7):895-903.
[Link]

Date Last Modified: 06/07/2014 - 21:56:23